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Introduction to Ionic Bonding and Covalent Bonding
 
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This crash course chemistry video tutorial explains the main concepts between ionic bonds found in ionic compounds and polar & nonpolar covalent bonding found in molecular compounds. This video contains plenty of notes, examples, and practice problems. Here is a list of topics: 1. Ionic Bonds - Transfer of Valence Electrons 2. Electrostatic Force of Attraction In Ionic Bonding 3. Ionic Compounds - Metals and Nonmetals 4. Molecular Compounds - 2 or More Nonmetals 5. Polar Covalent Bonding - Unequal Sharing of Electrons 6. Nonpolar Covalent Bonds - Equal Sharing of Electrons 7. Polarized Compounds - Dipole Moment and Charge Separation 8. Electronegativity and Charge Distribution 9. Metal Cations vs Nonmetal Anions
Polar Covalent Bonds and Nonpolar Covalent bonds, Ionic Bonding - Types of Chemical Bonds
 
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This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into the types of chemical bonds such as polar covalent bonds, nonpolar covalent bonds and ionic bonds. It discusses the difference between ionic bonding and covalent bonding. Ionic bonds can be identified by looking for a metal combined with a nonmetal. Covalent bonds typically occur among 2 or more nonmetals. Covalent bonding involves a sharing of electrons and ionic bonding forms as a result of a transfer of electrons from the metal to the nonmetal producing ions with opposite charge which are attracted to each other. The electrostatic force of attraction produces the ionic bond that holds the cations and anions together. Polar covalent bonds have unequal sharing of electrons between the atoms where as nonpolar covalent bonding have a relatively equal sharing of electrons between the atoms attached to the bond. Polar covalent bonds typically have an electronegativity difference of 0.5 or more where as nonpolar covalent bonds have a value difference of 0.4 or less. This video contains plenty of examples and practice problems. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Naming Covalent Molecular Compounds
 
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We'll learn how to write names for compounds that are made of two nonmetals, sometimes called binary compounds. Binary compounds made of two nonmetals are called covalent or molecular because the elements are held together with covalent bonds, and they make molecules. In order to name them, we use the element name for the first element in the chemical formula, and then we use the -ide name for the second name in the chemical formula. Greek prefixes to show the number of atoms of each element, and these are put in front of the element names.
Views: 734604 Tyler DeWitt
Is it an Ionic, Covalent or Polar Covalent Bond?
 
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How to tell if a bond is Ionic, Covalent or Polar Covalent. You have to calculate the difference in electronegativities between the atoms ... the difference tell you which you have!
Views: 244108 chemistNATE
Which compounds contain both ionic and covalent bonds (this video has no volume)
 
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This video has no volume :( Sorry! Which compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds? CO2 NH4Cl MgCl2 CH3Br I2
What Are Covalent Bonds | Chemistry for All | FuseSchool
 
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Learn the basics about covalent bonds, when learning about properties of matter. When similar atoms react, like non-metals combining with other non-metals, they share electrons. This is covalent bonding. Non-metals have shells of electrons that are normally half or more than half full of electrons. Since they have a strong attraction for a few additional electrons, it is energetically unfavourable for any of them to lose electrons, so they share electrons by overlapping orbitals. This makes a bonding orbital, or covalent bond, that contains two or more electrons. Covalent bonds can be represented by a dot and cross diagram. These diagrams show only the valence electrons. Covalent bonds are directional, which means they are in a fixed position. The overlap between orbitals mean that the atoms in covalent bonds are very close, and make covalent bonds strong. There are two kinds of covalent structure - small molecules, like water, and giant compounds, like diamond. The electrons in the bonds are evenly shared, which means the bonds are not polarised; there is little attraction between molecules, and forces between molecules are weak. Compounds made from small covalent molecules have low melting and boiling points and are volatile. They also don’t conduct electricity. Carbon and silicon tend to form giant covalent compounds. These bond in the same way, but instead of forming small molecules with one or two bonds, they form four, make up huge lattices or chains of many many linked up atoms. Diamond is a common example, and is made up of Carbon. These compounds have very high melting and boiling points because you have to break covalent bonds rather than intermolecular forces to make them free enough to act like liquids or gases. The covalent bonds hold them rigidly in place in the giant lattice. SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind The Fuse School. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Double and Triple  Covalent Bonds
 
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Learn how electrons are formed in a double and triple bond.
Views: 40726 The Science Classroom
Covalent - Double & Triple Bonds
 
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Examples of drawing Lewis Dot Diagrams and Structural Formulas for covalent compounds that contain double and triple covalent bonds.
Views: 82756 tlowthers
Chemistry: What is a Covalent Bond? (Polar and Nonpolar)
 
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Chemistry: What is a Covalent Bond? (Polar and Nonpolar) Covalent bonds are one of the 3 main types of intramolecular forces, along with ionic bonds and metallic bonds. Covalent bonds are the result of atoms sharing their valence electrons. Covalent bonds can be polar or nonpolar, depending on the electronegativies of the atoms involved in the bond. We show five examples of covalent bonds using Lewis dot structure notation: HF, CO2, H2, H2O and CCl4. You can click on the links below to jump to sections in the lesson: 0:28 Definition of a Covalent Bond 0:42 Example 1: HF (single covalent bond) 1:23 Example 2: CO2 (double covalent bond) 2:09 Nonpolar covalent bonds 2:20 Example 3: H2 2:43 Polar covalent bonds 2:48 Example 4: H2O 3:58 Example 5: CCl4 4:39 Pauling Bond Polarity Scale (Linus Pauling) 5:15 Do covalent bonds break apart in water? (electrolytes) Click to watch our video about ionic bonds: http://bit.ly/1UWsJRL Click to see our video about metallic bonds: http://bit.ly/1UoASiZ And here's our video comparing ionic and covalent bonds: http://bit.ly/1Nz4Kpy Intermolecular Forces: http://bit.ly/2xAnoMt ///////////////////////// Essential Chemistry Lessons help all year long: What is a Mole? Avogadro's Number: http://bit.ly/2laJh0S Molar Mass: http://bit.ly/2pNfg8L Scientific Notation: http://bit.ly/2cv6yTw Significant Figures: http://bit.ly/2b1g3aJ Unit Conversion 1: http://bit.ly/1YGOQgw Unit Conversion 2: http://bit.ly/1RGbwZ1 Periodic Table: http://bit.ly/2gmSWfe ///////////////////////// Our Periodic Table app is FREE in the Google Play store! http://goo.gl/yg9mAF Don't miss our other chemistry videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQw9G... Please Subscribe so you'll hear about our newest videos! http://bit.ly/1ixuu9W If you found this video helpful, please give it a "thumbs up" and share it with your friends! ///////////////////////// To support more videos from Socratica, visit Socratica Patreon https://www.patreon.com/socratica http://bit.ly/29gJAyg Socratica Paypal https://www.paypal.me/socratica We also accept Bitcoin! :) Our address is: 1EttYyGwJmpy9bLY2UcmEqMJuBfaZ1HdG9 ///////////////////////// We recommend the following books: Brown and LeMay Chemistry: The Central Science 13th edition: http://amzn.to/2n5SXtB 14th edition: http://amzn.to/2mHk79f McGraw/Hill Chemistry by Chang & Goldsby http://amzn.to/2mO2khf Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood by Oliver Sacks http://amzn.to/2nlaJp0 Napoleon's Buttons: How 17 Molecules Changed History http://amzn.to/2lJZzO3 ///////////////////////// Written and Produced by Kimberly Hatch Harrison About our instructor: Kimberly Hatch Harrison received degrees in Biology and English Literature from Caltech before working in pharmaceuticals research, developing drugs for autoimmune disorders. She then continued her studies in Molecular Biology (focusing on Immunology and Neurobiology) at Princeton University, where she began teaching as a graduate student. Her success in teaching convinced her to leave the glamorous world of biology research and turn to teaching full-time. Kimberly taught AP Biology and Chemistry at an exclusive prep school for eight years. She is now the head writer and producer of Socratica Studios.
Views: 185770 Socratica
Ionic vs. Molecular
 
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To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry How can you tell the difference between compounds that are ionic and molecular (also known as covalent)? It has to do with the elements that make them up: ionic compounds are made of metals and nonmetals, and molecular (or covalent) compounds are made of nonmetals. We'll learn how they bond differently: in covalent compounds, the atoms share electrons, and in ion compounds, atoms steal electrons and then opposite charges attract. Ionic and molecular (covalent) compounds also look different at the microscopic level: covalent and molecular compounds exist in molecules, while ionic compounds are organized in lattice structures.
Views: 742000 Tyler DeWitt
What Are Giant Chemical Structures  | Chemistry for All | FuseSchool
 
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Learn the basics about the differences between different chemical structures, including giant covalent, giant ionic and metallic structures. There are numerous materials and substances that possess giant chemical structures. Some are common: like the grains of sand on the beach; the microprocessors in our computers; the graphite in our pencils, the magnesium oxide found in the cement on our buildings; the salt we put on our food; the metals found almost everywhere; and the precious gemstone diamond. These substances are vastly different and this is due to the bonding and the arrangements of chemicals atoms, or ions. Sand, graphite, and diamond are all examples of giant covalent structures. The bonding between the atoms is covalent, but the arrangements of the atoms can be different. Sand contains silicon atoms covalently bonded to oxygen atoms. It has four oxygen atoms bonded in a tetrahedral arrangement around each silicon atom. Diamond has a very similar structure to sand, where all of the carbon atoms are joined by covalent bonds in a tetrahedral arrangement. In graphite the carbon atoms are bonded in hexagonal sheets and have intermolecular forces holding the sheets together. All of the atoms are chemically joined by covalent bonds in sand, diamond and graphite and so these materials have very high melting points because a lot of energy is required to break the bonds between the atoms. They are very hard substances. Diamond is one of the hardest substances in the world, but graphite is quite soft. These layers peel away when our pencils make a mark on paper because the forces holding the layers together are intermolecular and are quite weak. So when you are writing with a pencil, you are actually transferring sheets of carbon. The structure of these materials also determines their electrical conductivity. Diamond does not conduct electricity at all, because its electrons are locked up in covalent bonds; whereas graphite contains free electrons and so can conduct. Silicon is found in semi-conductors and it through adding other elements, called ‘doping’, that it allows partial conductance, which has applications in computing. Table salt (sodium chloride) and magnesium oxide are examples of giant ionic lattices. Ionic bonds form when a metal reacts with a non-metal. Metals form positive ions; nonmetals form negative ions. Ionic bonds are the electrostatic forces of attraction between these oppositely charged ions. Giant ionic structures also have exceptionally high melting points, because the electrostatic interactions between the ions are very strong. Giant ionic lattices, when in the solid state, do not conduct electricity because their ions are fixed in the lattice.This lattice structure is lost when the solid is melted, freeing up ions which can then conduct electricity. The final giant structures we consider in this video are metals. These all share the same structure, whereby electrons in the outer shells of the metal atoms are free to move. The metallic bond is a force of attraction between these free electrons and the positively charged metal ions. Metallic bonds are strong, so metals maintain a regular structure and usually have high melting and boiling points. In addition to this, metals also have other common properties; they conduct heat and electricity because of the free electrons ability to move. Free electrons also allow the metal ions to slide past one another, and so can be hammered into shapes; this is called ‘malleability.’ The ease at which a metal can be pulled into wires depend on how ductile it is. LINK TO PART 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-s9AggUNmbw&feature=youtu.be SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind FuseSchool. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
VSEPR Theory: Introduction
 
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To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry This is an introduction to the basics of VSEPR Theory. VSEPR theory is a set of rules for how to look at a Lewis structure and determine the three dimensional (3D) shape of a molecule. The shapes have to do with the location of bonds and lone electrons pairs. In this video, we'll look at the following shapes: linear, trigonal planar, bent, tetrahedral, and trigonal bipyramidal
Views: 1747977 Tyler DeWitt
Naming Ionic and Molecular Compounds | How to Pass Chemistry
 
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Naming compounds have never been so simple! With my strategy and step by step examples, you will be naming compounds like a pro in no time! This video explains every single type of ionic compound rule and covalent compound rule you will see and there are even practice problems to lock in what you just learned. 📗 FREE CHEMISTRY SURVIVAL GUIDE https://melissa.help/freechemguide 🙋‍♀️🙋‍♂️GOT A QUESTION? ASK ME HERE https://melissa.help/me 👉 SHOP MY STEP-BY-STEP CHEMISTRY NOTES👈 https://melissamaribel.com/ -Thermochemistry Notes https://melissa.help/thermonotes -Acids and Bases Notes https://melissa.help/acidbase1notes -Naming Compounds and Acids Notes https://melissa.help/namingnotes -Dimensional Analysis, Significant Figures, and Density Notes https://melissa.help/sigfignotes -Gas Laws Notes https://melissa.help/gaslawsnotes -Stoichiometry Notes https://melissa.help/stoichnotes -Redox Reactions Notes https://melissa.help/redoxnotes -Molarity Notes https://melissa.help/molaritynotes -Limiting Reactants Notes https://melissa.help/limreactnotes -Lewis Structures Notes https://melissa.help/lewisnotes -Kinetics Notes https://melissa.help/kineticsnotes 🧡SHOW YOUR SUPPORT ON PATREON https://www.patreon.com/melissamaribel 👍MELISSA'S FAVORITES ON AMAZON https://www.amazon.com/shop/chemistrywithmelissamaribel --OTHER RESOURCES TO HELP YOU GET THROUGH SCHOOL-- 🙌 This was my go-to homework help when I was in school. Chegg Study is one of my favorites. https://che.gg/melissamaribelstudy 📚 I made the mistake of buying all of my textbooks, I wish I had the option of renting them. Thankfully you do, with Chegg Textbook Rentals. https://che.gg/melissamaribelrentals 💰 If you bought a textbook and don’t want the hassle of selling it, Chegg can do the work for you, with Chegg Buyback. https://che.gg/melissamaribelbuyback 📝 QUICKSTUDY REFERENCE GUIDES ⬇️ 📕 CHEMISTRY BREAKDOWN AND REVIEW https://amzn.to/2t50xWx 📙 CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND ANSWERS https://amzn.to/2MPjC88 📘 CHEMISTRY TERMINOLOGY https://amzn.to/2t9cv1o DISCLAIMER: Some links in the description are affiliate links, which means that if you buy from those links, I’ll receive a small commission. This helps support the channel and allows me to continue making videos like this. Thanks for the support! 💁‍♀️ HI I'M MELISSA MARIBEL I help students pass Chemistry. I used to struggle with this subject, so when I finally graduated with a bachelor's degree in Chemistry, I became a tutor so that you wouldn't have to struggle like I did. I know that with the right help, YOU CAN LEARN ANYTHING! 👋 FOLLOW ME Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/hellomelissam/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/hellomelissam/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/hellomelissam Practice problems with step by step answers: http://bit.ly/2YGSkX5 TIMESTAMPS 1:13 Naming Strategy 1:53 Ionic Compound Naming Rules 9:49 Covalent Compound Naming Rules Example 11:49 Practice problems ___________________________________________________________________ Music: [China Electro] China-P (Morocco No Copyright music) - https://youtu.be/uDkddvltoUk Music: The Rover - S Strong https://youtu.be/DhBCxKQPHiI ___________________________________________________________________
Views: 368338 Melissa Maribel
Covalent Bonding in Water, Methane, Ammonia & Hydrogen Fluoride | Chemistry for All | FuseSchool
 
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In this video we will look at covalent bonds in methane, ammonia, water and hydrogen fluoride. They are small, covalently-bonded molecules. The atoms within them share electrons because they have half full or more than half full valence shells of electrons: they are non-metals. Methane is a fuel, ammonia is used in household cleaners, water is a drink and the essence of life, and hydrogen fluoride is used to etch glass. The bonding in methane, ammonia, water and hydrogen fluoride shows a pattern: methane is carbon bonded to four hydrogen atoms; ammonia is nitrogen bonded to three hydrogen atoms; water is oxygen bonded to two hydrogen atoms, and hydrogen fluoride is fluorine bonded to just one hydrogen atom. Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine appear in the periodic table in this order, moving along the second row from left to right. Carbon has four out of eight electrons in its outer shell, so makes four covalent bonds. Nitrogen has five out of eight electrons in its outer shell, so can make three covalent bonds to make the shell full. Oxygen has 6 electrons in its outer shell. It can bond with two hydrogen atoms to share 2 more electrons. It now has a full outer shell of 8 electrons. Ammonia has two electrons, called a lone pair of electrons, occupying the fourth position. These electrons take up space. Because electrons are negatively charged, lone pairs repel bonds even more strongly than bonds repel each other. This makes ammonia less symmetric than methane. The water molecule is bent in shape. Oxygen has two lone pairs. Negatively charged lone pairs are slightly attracted to the hydrogen atoms, so there is a weak attraction between molecules. Forces between molecules are a little stronger in water than in ammonia or methane. Water is liquid at room temperature and pressure, whilst ammonia a gas that is easily liquefied, and methane is a gas. Intermolecular forces are normally very weak in covalent compounds, but in water they are just strong enough to keep it liquid. A bit more energy is needed to overcome these forces and boil it. If water were not a liquid, life as we know it would be completely different! Ethanol contains carbon and oxygen bonding. The carbon atoms always form four bonds and the oxygen forms two. Remember, carbon forms 4 bonds, nitrogen forms 3 bonds and has one lone pair of electrons, and oxygen forms two bonds and looks bent. SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind FuseSchool. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
How to Draw Covalent Bonding Molecules
 
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http://www.sciencetutorial4u.com This video explains how to draw covalent molecules and compounds. Contents: 0:08 Introduction 0:39 H2 1:25 HCl 2:23 Cl2 3:18 CH4 4:27 NH3 5:37 H2O 6:52 O2 7:57 N2 Thank you for watching. Please like, subscribe and share this video: https://youtu.be/_v8C1W0ChVM INTRODUCTION 0:08 Covalent bonding happens between non-metals. The electrons are shared between the non-metal atoms. This bonding allow atoms to have full outer shell of electrons. Only the electrons in the outer shell take part in the bonding. The number of electrons in the outer shell can be found out using the group in the periodic table. H2 0:39 Hydrogen is in group 1 so it has one electron in the outer shell. Hydrogen molecules have single bond which means they have two electrons in the overlap. HCl 1:25 Chlorine is in group 7 so it has seven electrons in the outer shell. HCl has single bond so it has two electrons in the overlap. Cl2 2:23 Chlorine is in group 7 so it has seven electrons in the outer shell. Cl2 (Chlorine molecule) has single bond so it has two electrons in the overlap. CH4 3:18 Carbon is in group 4 so it has four electrons in the outer shell. Methane has four single bonds. NH3 4:27 Nitrogen is found in group 5 so it has 5 electrons in the outer-shell. The Nitrogen atom is surrounded by three Hydrogen atoms, each providing one electron in the sharing (overlap). So Ammonia has 3 single bonds. H2O 5:37 Oxygen is found in group 6 so it has 6 electrons in the outer shell. Water has 2 single bonds. O2 6:52 Oxygen molecules have double bonds. Oxygen atom is found in group 6 so it has 6 electron in the outer shell. Therefore, in the overlap there are 2 pairs of electrons (which is 4 electrons in the overlap). This leads O2 molecules to have one double bond. N2 7:57 Nitrogen molecules have triple bonds. Nitrogen is found in group 5 so it has 5 electrons in the outer-shell. In the overlap, there are 3 pairs of electrons which are 6 electrons in the overlap. This causes Nitrogen molecules to have one triple bond. How to draw Ionic Bonds Teaching Video: https://youtu.be/ek-AN5K3AlI Ionic and Covalent bonds Teaching video: https://youtu.be/wQ3NJUKKcTU How to draw electron shell Teaching video: https://youtu.be/vuVNkQwSggo
Views: 71505 sciencetutorial4u
Dative Covalent Bonding | A-level Chemistry | AQA, OCR, Edexcel
 
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https://goo.gl/31T06Y to unlock the full series of AS & A-level Chemistry videos for the new OCR, AQA and Edexcel specification. In today’s video we cover the concept of dative covalent bonding, namely when two electron derive from the same atom in a covalent bond. We’ll proceed by looking at two examples of substances that contain covalent bonding, ammonium ions and oxonium ions. We’ll see the dot-cross diagram for the equation of forming ammonia and explain how the hydrogen bonds with ammonia. Next, we’ll look at the formation of hydronium ions and how water acts to form the covalent bonds. The video concludes with an exam style question.
Views: 8980 SnapRevise
Chemical Bonding Introduction: Hydrogen Molecule, Covalent Bond & Noble Gases
 
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Chemical bonding introduction video shows how covalent bond means 2 hydrogen atoms can stick together to form a hydrogen molecule, H2. The video also explains why helium cannot form bonds and hence is called a noble gas. Subscribe to watch more online chemistry courses & science videos: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCiX8pAYWBppIbtUZTfGnRJw?sub_confirmation=1 About Atomic School: Atomic School supports the teaching of Atomic Theory to primary school & science students . We provide lesson plans, hands-on classroom resources, demonstration equipment, quizzes and a Teacher's Manual to primary school teachers. Animated videos that clearly explain the scientific ideas supports learning by both teachers and students. As a teacher, you don't have to look anywhere else to implement this program. Our work has been verified by science education researchers at the University of Southern Queensland, Dr Jenny Donovan and Dr Carole Haeusler, who confirm that primary students are capable of learning much more complex scientific concepts than previously thought, and crucially, that they love it. Students run to class! The program has been trialed in Australian schools as well as schools in the Philippines, Iran and India. It is conducted as holiday workshops at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the Queensland Museum as well as the World Science Festival. It has attracted wide media interest, including TV, radio and print, and the research data has been presented at prestigious American Education Research Association and Australian Science Education Research Association conferences. Atomic Theory underlies all the other sciences- genetics, electronics, nanotechnology, engineering and astronomy- so an early understanding will set them up for a more successful learning sequence for all their science subjects, and support their mastery of mathematics as well. We also have extension programs that cover Biology, Physics and Astronomy to an equal depth. About Ian Stuart (Email: [email protected]): The founder of Atomic School, Ian Stuart, taught Chemistry and Physics for 25 years at senior levels before he realized that his 8-year old son, Tom, could understand Atomic Theory at a much deeper level than he expected. After visiting Tom's class at school, he discovered that his peers could also grasp the abstract scientific concepts, as well as apply it usefully to the real world. Ian then developed a program to teach the advanced concepts of high school Chemistry, Physics and Biology to students 10 years younger than they normally would. He found that this engaged their interest in modern science early, and sustained it through to high school and beyond. It also sets them up for future success in their academic and career paths. Ian has a Bachelor's Degree in Chemistry from the University of Queensland and a Master's degree in Electrochemistry from the University of Melbourne. Connect with Atomic School on social media: http://facebook.com/AtomicSchool http://twitter.com/AtomicSchools http://instagram.com/AtomicSchools Video transcript: Let's do a thought experiment. Imagine a box filled with hydrogen atoms. Like billiard balls on a pool table, atoms actually move, and they do it in straight lines until they hit something … like another hydrogen atom. Oh! See that? They stuck together. They’re not separate hydrogen atoms any more, but a pair of hydrogen atoms moving together. There goes another pair. 4.1 When atoms join up like this, scientists call it a molecule. And they call the join between them a chemical bond. Here comes another hydrogen atom crashing into the hydrogen molecule. But this time it doesn’t stick. Instead it just bounces off. Hydrogen atoms bond once, and that’s it. They’re just like that. Pretty quickly all the hydrogen atoms will collide and pair off into molecules. They will keep hitting each other, but they'll just bounce off. Scientists like to have a shorthand way of writing this molecule thingi. Here’s one way to show it, with the hydrogen symbols joined by a stick to show the chemical bond between the atoms. Another way is to write H2, with the little 2 after the H and a bit lower. A number written this way is called a subscript. What do you think the 2 stands for? It counts the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule. Easy, heh! So when we have a balloon filled with hydrogen gas, it really contains trillions of trillions of H2 molecules. Let's do another thought experiment. We'll go back to our box filled with hydrogen atoms, but this time put an oxygen atom in there too. When a hydrogen atom crashes into an oxygen atom, they stick together. But wait, when another hydrogen atom hits, it also sticks to the oxygen. What about a third hydrogen atom? No, that’s if for oxygen. It can only make 2 bonds and then it’s done.
Views: 142762 AtomicSchool
How Does Water Bond - Covalent Bonds | Chemistry for All | FuseSchool
 
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Learn the basics about the covalent bonding of water, when learning about covalent bonding within properties of matter. Water is made from one oxygen atom and two hydrogens. The oxygen has 6 electrons in its outer shell, but it really wants to have 8 to have a full shell. The hydrogens have one outer shell electron, but want to have two. The atoms share their electrons, forming covalent bonds. So all three atoms have full outer shells, and create a water molecule. Water has two covalent bonds. In water, the bonding electrons spend most of their time nearer the oxygen atom, because it is more ELECTRONEGATIVE. This means that it is electron withdrawing. As the negatively charged electrons are nearer the oxygen atom, the oxygen atom becomes a little bit negative itself, while the hydrogens become a little positive. This is called delta positive and delta negative. Water doesn’t just have any old covalent bonds; it has what we call POLAR COVALENT bonds and is a POLAR molecule. This is really important as it affects how water behaves and reacts with other elements. SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind The Fuse School. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
4.2 Describe how the covalent bond is formed via electron sharing [SL IB Chemistry]
 
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Atoms may share electrons to obtain a full outer shell with other atoms. The resulting molecules are more stable. Atoms may share one electron each = covalent bond. Sharing 2 each is a double bond, 3 each is a triple bond. If one atom shares 2 electrons and the other shares none that is called a dative (or coordinate) covalent bond. The hydronium ion, ammonium ion and carbon monoxide all contain a dative covalent bond. Pyro's arm grew back at respawn!
Views: 55689 Richard Thornley
Atomic Hook-Ups - Types of Chemical Bonds: Crash Course Chemistry #22
 
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Atoms are a lot like us - we call their relationships "bonds," and there are many different types. Each kind of atomic relationship requires a different type of energy, but they all do best when they settle into the lowest stress situation possible. The nature of the bond between atoms is related to the distance between them and, like people, it also depends on how positive or negative they are. Unlike with human relationships, we can analyze exactly what makes chemical relationships work, and that's what this episode is all about. If you are paying attention, you will learn that chemical bonds form in order to minimize the energy difference between two atoms or ions; that those chemical bonds may be covalent if atoms share electrons, and that covalent bonds can share those electrons evenly or unevenly; that bonds can also be ionic if the electrons are transferred instead of shared: and how to calculate the energy transferred in an ionic bond using Coulomb's Law. -- Table of Contents Bonds Minimize Energy 01:38 Covalent Bonds 03:18 Ionic Bonds 05:37 Coulomb's Law 05:51 -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 1807467 CrashCourse
Ionic and Covalent Bonds, Hydrogen Bonds, van der Waals - 4 types of Chemical Bonds in Biology
 
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There are four types of chemical bonds essential for life to exist: Ionic Bonds, Covalent Bonds, Hydrogen Bonds, and van der Waals interactions. We need all of these different kinds of bonds to play various roles in biochemical interactions. These bonds vary in their strengths. In Chemistry, we think of Ionic Bonds and Covalent bonds as having an overlapping range of strengths. But remember, in biochemistry, everything is happening in the context of water. This means Ionic bonds tend to dissociate in water. Thus, we will think of these bonds in the following order (strongest to weakest): Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen, and van der Waals. Also note that in Chemistry, the weakest bonds are more commonly referred to as “dispersion forces.” Related Chemistry video: Ionic Bonds vs Covalent Bonds http://bit.ly/2cUG6C8 Our series on Biology is aimed at the first-year college level, including pre-med students. These videos should also be helpful for students in challenging high school biology courses. Perfect for preparing for the AP Biology exam or the Biology SAT. Also appropriate for advanced homeschoolers. You can also follow along if you are just curious, and would like to know more about this fascinating subject. ***** Our current biology textbook recommendation is Campbell Biology from Pearson. 10th edition Amazon Link: http://amzn.to/2mahQTi 11th edition Amazon Link: http://amzn.to/2m7xU6w Amazon Used Textbooks - Save up to 90% http://amzn.to/2pllk4B For lighter reading, we recommend: I Contain Multitudes: The Microbes Within Us and a Grander View of Life by Ed Yong http://amzn.to/2pLOddQ Lab Girl by Hope Jahren http://amzn.to/2oMolPg ***** This video was made possible by the generous donations of our Patrons on Patreon. We dedicate this video to our VIP Patron, Vishal Shah. We’re so thankful for your support! ***** Please Subscribe so you'll hear about our newest videos! http://bit.ly/1ixuu9W If you found this video helpful, please give it a "thumbs up" and share it with your friends! If you'd like to support more great educational videos from Socratica, please consider becoming our Patron on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/socratica ***** Written and Produced by Kimberly Hatch Harrison About our instructor: Kimberly Hatch Harrison received degrees in Biology and English Literature from Caltech before working in pharmaceuticals research, developing drugs for autoimmune disorders. She then continued her studies in Molecular Biology (focusing on Immunology and Neurobiology) at Princeton University, where she began teaching as a graduate student. Her success in teaching convinced her to leave the glamorous world of biology research and turn to teaching full-time, accepting a position at an exclusive prep school, where she taught biology and chemistry for eight years. She is now the head writer and producer of Socratica Studios. ****** Creative Commons Picture Credits: Salt crystals https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Halit-Kristalle.jpg Author: W.J. Pilsak Hydrogen Bonding in water https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:3D_model_hydrogen_bonds_in_water.svg Author: Qwerter Products in this video: Preparing for the Biology AP* Exam (School Edition) (Pearson Education Test Prep) - http://amzn.to/2qJVbxm Cracking the AP Biology Exam, 2017 Edition: Proven Techniques to Help You Score a 5 (College Test Preparation) - http://amzn.to/2qB3NsZ Cracking the SAT Biology E/M Subject Test, 15th Edition (College Test Preparation) - http://amzn.to/2qJIfHN
Views: 44473 Socratica
Chemical Bonding - Ionic vs. Covalent Bonds
 
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This two minute animation describes the Octet Rule and explains the difference between ionic and covalent bonds. Find more free tutorials, videos and readings for the science classroom at ricochetscience.com
Views: 273592 RicochetScience
Covalent Network Solids
 
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025 - Covalent Network Solids In this video Paul Andersen explains how covalent network solids form elementally (like graphite) or by combining multiple nonmetals (like quartz). Covalent network solids contain elements from the carbon group because they have four valence electrons and can create three-dimensional shapes. Silicon crystals act as semiconductors and can be either n-type or p-type doped to increase their effectiveness. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Connormah. English: MAde by Me in AICS3, [object HTMLTableCellElement]. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lightning--.svg. "File:80486DX2 200x.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 19, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:80486DX2_200x.png. "File:Graphite-layers-side-3D-balls.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 19, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Graphite-layers-side-3D-balls.png. "File:GraphiteUSGOV.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 19, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GraphiteUSGOV.jpg. "File:Monokristalines Silizium Für Die Waferherstellung.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 19, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Monokristalines_Silizium_f%C3%BCr_die_Waferherstellung.jpg. "File:Pencils Hb.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 19, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pencils_hb.jpg. "File:Quartz, Tibet.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, August 17, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Quartz,_Tibet.jpg&oldid=346538517. "File:Silicon-unit-cell-3D-balls.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 19, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Silicon-unit-cell-3D-balls.png. "File:Transbauformen.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 19, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Transbauformen.jpg. Materialscientist, Diamond_and_graphite jpg: User:Itubderivative work: Diamond and Graphite Samples with Their Respective Structures, 11:37 (UTC). Diamond_and_graphite.jpg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Diamond_and_graphite2.jpg.
Views: 66497 Bozeman Science
What is a Coordinate Covalent Bond?
 
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This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into coordinate covalent bond. Line any covalent bond, electrons are shared. However, in a coordinate covalent bond, one atom donates both electrons that contribute to the formation of the bond. A lewis acid lewis base reaction can form a coordinate covalent bond as well as metal ligand interactions. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Covalent Bond Examples - Difference Between a Polar Covalent Bond and a Nonpolar Covalent Bond
 
02:13
Covalent Bond - This video provides examples of covalent bonds. It discusses the difference between a polar covalent bond and a nonpolar covalent bond.
Views: 5938 Math & Science 2024
Identify Coordinate bond in any molecule- In Hindi
 
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Identifying Coordinate bond was never so easy . Follow VK sir on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/vineetkhatrivk/ Please Like ATP Academy on Facebook https://web.facebook.com/Any-Time-Padhai-Academy-1034624919960861/
Co-ordinate Covalent Bond
 
03:55
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com [email protected] http://www.7activemedical.com/ [email protected] http://www.sciencetuts.com/ [email protected] Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Co-ordinate covalent bond (or) Dative bond:The formation of Co-ordinate covalent bond was explained by "Sidwick"Definition: Dative bond is the bond formed by sharing of electron pair but the shared pair is contributed by one atom.Co- ordinate covalent bond is semi polar bond.Characteristics of dative bond:The atom which contributes the electron pair for sharing is called electron pair donor.The donor atom must have at least one pair of electrons in valence shell.An atom which accepts electron pair is called electron pair acceptor. It should have vacant orbital in valence shell.Co-ordinate covalent bond shown by an arrow "→" pointing from donor to acceptor.Let us study the concept with an example.Consider the formation of ammonium ion - NH4 Plus:In Ammonia molecule nitrogen has atomic number 7.The valence shell electronic configuration of nitrogen is 1S2 2S2 2Px1 2Py1 2Pz1.Nitrogen undergoes Sp3 hybridization with one lone pair of electron, one hybrid orbital, other three hybrid orbitals form three .bonds with three hydrogen atoms.In hydrogen ion - 1S vacant orbital is present.Therefore the nitrogen atom has one sp3 orbitals with lone pair which overlaps the vacant 1S orbitals of H+ ion to form co-ordinate covalent bond.Co-ordinate bond is rigid and directional like covalent bond.Properties of compounds with Co-ordinate covalent bond:They are gases or liquids due to weak inter molecular forces.The melting & boiling points of co-ordinate compounds are higher than covalent compounds, but lower than ionic compounds.Co-ordinate compounds are soluble in non polar solvents like benzene and carbon tetrachloride. They are insoluble in polar solvent like water.They are stable as covalent compounds. They undergo molecular reactions which are slow.They exhibit isomerism due to directional nature of bond.Examples: Formation of ammonia boron trifluoride molecule:In ammonia molecule nitrogen atom donates a pair of electrons to the boron fluoride molecule and shares them. A dative bond is formed between them. H3N → BF3
Views: 147646 7activestudio
Ionic and Covalent Compounds
 
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DeltaStep is a social initiative by graduates of IIM-Ahmedabad, IIM-Bangalore, IIT-Kharagpur, ISI-Kolkata, Columbia University (USA), NTU (Singapore) and other leading institutes. At DeltaStep, we understand that just like every child has a unique face, a unique fingerprint; he has a unique learning ability as well. Hence we have built an intelligent adaptive learning system that delivers a tailor-made learning solution and helps a student to learn at his own pace because when it comes to learning, one size does not fit all. Learn from 1000s of such interesting videos, practice from more than 1,00,000 questions, learn complex concepts through games, take timed tests, get detailed reports & in-depth analysis even via SMS and Whatsapp and many more amazing features. Class wise mapping available for all leading boards including ICSE and CBSE. Create your personal learning account. Register for FREE at www.deltastep.com.
Views: 20702 DeltaStep
Polar & Non-Polar Molecules: Crash Course Chemistry #23
 
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*** PLEASE WATCH WITH ANNOTATIONS ON! SOME INACCURACIES IN GRAPHICS ARE NOTED AND CORRECTED IN ANNOTATIONS. THANKS! *** Molecules come in infinite varieties, so in order to help the complicated chemical world make a little more sense, we classify and categorize them. One of the most important of those classifications is whether a molecule is polar or non-polar, which describes a kind of symmetry - not just of the molecule, but of the charge. In this edition of Crash Course Chemistry, Hank comes out for Team Polar, and describes why these molecules are so interesting to him. You'll learn that molecules need to have both charge asymmetry and geometric asymmetry to be polar, and that charge asymmetry is caused by a difference in electronegativities. You'll also learn how to notate a dipole moment (or charge separation) of a molecule, the physical mechanism behind like dissolves like, and why water is so dang good at fostering life on Earth. -- Table of Contents Charge Assymetry & Geometric Asymmetry 01:33 Difference in Electronegatives 01:49 Hank is Team Polar 00:33 Dipole Moment 03:49 Charge Separation of a Molecule 04:12 Like Dissolves Like 04:41 Water is Awesome 05:10 -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 2514690 CrashCourse
Covalent Bonding of Hydrogen, Oxygen & Nitrogen | Chemistry for All | The Fuse School
 
03:25
Learn the basics about the covalent bonding of hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen as a part of the overall topic of properties of matter. The noble gas structure and covalent bonding is also discussed. SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind The Fuse School. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Polar and NonPolar Molecules: How To Tell If a Molecule is Polar or Nonpolar
 
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This video provides a fast way for you to determine if a molecule is polar or nonpolar. It provides examples so you can quickly distinguish nonpolar molecules from those that are polar. General Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BV-uX6wXQgyqZXvRd0tUUV0&index=3 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/ Here is a list of molecules that are classified as polar or nonpolar: N2, O2, Cl2, F2, H2 He, Ne, Ar, Xe CH4, C2H6, CH2=CH2, CF4, SBr6, BH3, CO2, PCl5, H2O, NH3, HF, CH3OH, CH3NH2, CH3COOH OCS, CH3F, SO2
Writing Formulas with Polyatomic Ions
 
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To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry Here's how to write formulas for ionic compounds that contain polyatomic ions. In order to write formulas for polyatomic ions, you have to look at a chart or table of polyatomic ions to find out what the charge of each one is. Then, you figure out how many other ions will be necessary to balance out the charges and make it neutral.
Views: 1339412 Tyler DeWitt
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds - Clear & Simple
 
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NEW & IMPROVED VIDEO LINK - I've improved this video, check it out (http://youtu.be/4SjSKjmO38c). Determining the Type of Bond Based On Electronegativity. Polar, Nonpolar or Ionic Bonds. This is meant to be an introduction to molecular polarity. Higher order polar covalent molecules are not discussed. Clear & Simple Chemistry Explanation.
Views: 296225 sciencepost
How Do Atoms Bond - Part 2 | Chemistry for All | FuseSchool
 
05:51
Learn the basics about how atoms bond when learning about the structure of atoms. Bonds form by the attraction of negatively charged electrons and the positive nucleus of atoms. Atoms have a positively charged tiny nucleus which contains almost all the atom’s mass, surrounded by shells of negatively charged electrons. Each shell is able to hold only up to a fixed number of electrons when it is said to be full. Hydrogen has a single positive charge in the nucleus and a single electron. If two hydrogen atoms approach each other, there is an attraction: the positive charge and the negative electron charge attract. However the first shell, for all atoms, can only contain two electrons so once the two Hydrogen atoms come together the two electrons essentially ‘fill’ the outer shell of both Hydrogen atoms. The atoms are essentially ‘glued’ together by the attraction of the two electrons and the two nuclei. The same form of electron share bonding occurs between any non-metallic elements, with the outer shell quickly becoming full, limiting the number of bonds that form. When there are four electrons in the outer shell, such as with carbon and silicon there is room for four more electrons so 4 bonds form. In this case it is possible to build up a 3-D structure with the bonding going on forever. In this way we see that carbon and silicon, as elements, have atoms chemically bonded into a 3D lattice so they are both solids at room temperature and very difficult to melt and vaporise. They are giant covalent structures. Metallic bonding is the way all metals and alloys are bonded, and explains the typical properties of metals. Atoms can be added as much as you want and there will never be enough electrons to fill the outer shell. So in metallic bonding, the atoms form a closely packed lattice where the atoms are not bonded by fixed pairs of electrons, but rather by a ‘sea’ of electrons roaming these partially filled outer shells at will. When two different atoms approach each other, covalent bonds can form. The number of electrons that are shared depends upon how many electrons are missing from the outer shells of the atoms. Overall, in this video you will learn how two atoms which approach each other have the possibility to bond if there is space in their outer electron shells. Non-metallic elements will tend to form self contained small molecules giving rise to volatile solids, liquids and all gases. Carbon and silicon will give rise to giant structures. Metallic elements will bond together to form metallic structures with loose electrons. When metal bonds with a non-metal ionic compounds are formed. SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind FuseSchool. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Covalent Bonding and Covalent Compounds for Interactive Notebooks
 
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This is part of a chemistry interactive notebook series covering various topics in chemistry. If you already implement interactive notebooks, then check out the Covalent Bonding for Chemistry Interactive Notebooks. The product includes student notes and interactive graphic organizers (IGOs) for ionic bonding (see below for product breakdown). __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Bonding Links • Covalent Bonding Interactive Notebook https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Covalent-Molecular-Bonding-and-Compounds-for-Chemistry-Interactive-Notebooks-1995640?utm_source=YouTube&utm_campaign=YouTube%20%7C%20Covalent%20Bonding%20INB • Video: Teaching Covalent and Ionic Compounds - How to Identify Compounds Using the Periodic Table https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nBL8BWmzbrs&t=17s __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Social Media and contact information Newsletter sign-up http://bit.ly/bwjnews Facebook @bondwithjames https://www.facebook.com/bondwithjames Instagram @bondwithjames https://www.instagram.com/bondwithjames Pinterest @bondwithjames https://www.pinterest.com/bondwithjames TeachersPayTeachers @bondwithjames https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/store/bond-with-james email [email protected] __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Covalent Bonding INB product includes: Page 3 – Terms of Purchase & Copyright Pages 4-5 – Procedures for class set-up Page 6 – Customization for resizing IGOs Pages 7 – Instructions for Note Pages Pages 8-15 – Student Note Pages (half sheets – 1 page per 2 students) • Covers the definition of a covalent bond, how to illustrate covalent bonds between atoms, types of bonds (single, double, and triple), naming covalent compounds, and writing formulas of covalent compounds. Checking for understanding and practice problems are included in a Gradual Release format (I do, We do, You do). Pages 16-19 – Student Notes Pages Key Pages 20-26 • Flaps (Lewis/Electron Dot Structures – single bond, double bond, triple bond, ammonia and methane molecules) Pages 27-28 – Covalent Bonding Flap (Octet Rule) Pages 29-31 – Covalent Bonding 5 Flaps (Naming Covalent Compounds) Pages 32-34 – Covalent Bonding Cut & Paste 3 Flap (Molecular Representation) Pages 35-36 – Covalent Bonding Flap (Diatomic Molecules) **All IGOs come with pictures and instructions for use __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Covalent Bonding and Covalent Compounds for Interactive Notebooks created by © James Lyas (Bond with James), All Rights Reserved. Disclaimer: This product is a flattened PDF file and contains copyrighted images; therefore, it is not editable.
Views: 435 Bond with James
√ Bonding in carbon compounds | Energy | Chemistry
 
14:20
#iitutor #Chemistry #Energy https://www.iitutor.com/ In organic compounds carbon atoms almost always form four bonds. This suggests that the carbon atom’s four valence electrons are all involved in bonding. An examination of simple carbon-base molecules like methane (CH4) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) indicates that in these compounds the carbon atom forms four identical single covalent bonds and that the angles between the bonds are 109.5 . It can be predicted from the valence shell electron pair is required to minimise the electrostatic repulsion between them. The central role of carbon in organic chemistry depends on the fact carbon atoms can form chains of virtually unlimited length containing a succession of carbon-carbons bonds. The valence electrons not involved in forming carbon-carbon bonds are used in forming bonds with atoms of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and halogens. The properties of carbon that allow it to form a huge number and variety of compounds include: • four outer shell valence electrons • can form single, double and triple bonds • can form chains and rings, which can be branched or unbranched • can share electrons with other non-metals Carbon atoms can bond to one another by single, double or triple covalent bonds. Lewis electron-dot diagrams do not show the spatial distribution of bonds in three dimensions. Carbon-carbon single bonds Single covalent bonds around a carbon atom are arranged tetrahedrally (bond angle=109.28 ). Methane is a good example of this arrangement of carbon-hydrogen single bonds. The two simplest molecules containing carbon-carbon single bonds are ethane (CH3CH3) and propane (CH 3CH2CH3). In these compounds each carbon atom forms four single bonds which again have a tetrahedral orientation. In the case of CH3CH3 three of the bonds formed by the carbon atoms are C-H bonds, while the other bond is a C-C bond. The length of the single C-C bond in these compounds has been found to be 0.154 nm. Carbon-carbon double bonds The compound ethene (CH2CH2) is the simplest carbon compound containing a C=C double bond. In this case only two of each carbon atom's four valence electrons are used in bonding with hydrogen atoms. Hence each carbon atom shares two pairs of electrons with another carbon atom. These two pairs of electrons constitute a double bond. The presence of one double covalent bond forces the bonding electrons into a planar arrangement (bond angle=120 ), so the structure of ethane (ethylene) is planar. An examination of compounds such as ethene (CH2CH2 ) indicates that the C=C bond length is 0.134 nm, the bond angles are 120°, and the geometric arrangement of the two carbon atoms and adjoining hydrogen atoms is planar. This again can be explained in terms of the VSEPR theory. In using the VSEPR theory the C=C double bond is viewed as a single region of charge. To minimise electron repulsion the three electron regions around each carbon atom adopt a planar orientation with bond angles of 120°.
Views: 5972 iitutor.com
Class 10 CHEMICAL BONDING | Ionic /Electrovalent Bonding | Covalent Bonding | Polar and Non Polar |
 
01:00:30
To support me in my journey you can donate ([email protected] 9161123482) or Alakh Pandey ,Bank of Baroda, Rajrooppur, Allahabad,U.P IFSC: BARB0RAJROO Account No: 19210100020819 A small amount of Rs 100 even will be of great help. Follow us on: Instagram https://www.instagram.com/physicswallah/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/physicswallah Class 10 CHEMICAL BONDING | Ionic /Electrovalent Bonding | Covalent Bonding | Polar and Non Polar https://youtu.be/ZcmzabBVLh8 CoOrDiNaTe BoNdInG : ICSE 10th CHEMISTRy : CHEMICAL BONDING https://youtu.be/PfVHYS3oC_4
How Do Atoms Bond | Chemistry for All | FuseSchool
 
03:33
Learn the basics about how atoms bond when learning about the structure of atoms. Bonds form by the attraction of negatively charged electrons and the positive nucleus of atoms. Atoms have a positively charged tiny nucleus which contains almost all the atom’s mass, surrounded by shells of negatively charged electrons. Each shell is able to hold only up to a fixed number of electrons when it is said to be full. Hydrogen has a single positive charge in the nucleus and a single electron. If two hydrogen atoms approach each other, there is an attraction: the positive charge and the negative electron charge attract. However the first shell, for all atoms, can only contain two electrons so once the two Hydrogen atoms come together the two electrons essentially ‘fill’ the outer shell of both Hydrogen atoms. The atoms are essentially ‘glued’ together by the attraction of the two electrons and the two nuclei. The same form of electron share bonding occurs between any non-metallic elements, with the outer shell quickly becoming full, limiting the number of bonds that form. When there are four electrons in the outer shell, such as with carbon and silicon there is room for four more electrons so 4 bonds form. In this case it is possible to build up a 3-D structure with the bonding going on forever. In this way we see that carbon and silicon, as elements, have atoms chemically bonded into a 3D lattice so they are both solids at room temperature and very difficult to melt and vaporise. They are giant covalent structures. Metallic bonding is the way all metals and alloys are bonded, and explains the typical properties of metals. Atoms can be added as much as you want and there will never be enough electrons to fill the outer shell. So in metallic bonding, the atoms form a closely packed lattice where the atoms are not bonded by fixed pairs of electrons, but rather by a ‘sea’ of electrons roaming these partially filled outer shells at will. When two different atoms approach each other, covalent bonds can form. The number of electrons that are shared depends upon how many electrons are missing from the outer shells of the atoms. Overall, in this video you will learn how two atoms which approach each other have the possibility to bond if there is space in their outer electron shells. Non-metallic elements will tend to form self contained small molecules giving rise to volatile solids, liquids and all gases. Carbon and silicon will give rise to giant structures. Metallic elements will bond together to form metallic structures with loose electrons. When metal bonds with a non-metal ionic compounds are formed. SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind The Fuse School. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Chemical Bonding Covalent Bonds and Ionic Bonds
 
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Chemical Bonding Covalent Bonds and Ionic Bonds. Mr. Causey discusses ionic bonds, covalent bonds and chemical bonding. You need to know the periodic table, valence electrons, lewis dot symbols, oxidation numbers and electronegativity in order to determine chemicals bonds. http://www.yourCHEMcoach.com Subscribe for more chemistry videos: http://bit.ly/1jeutVl Basic Rules - 0:56 Valence Electrons - 1:10 Electronegativity - 1:18 Chemical Bonding - 1:46 Ionic Bond - 2:58 Covalent Bond - 4:00 Compound Characteristics - 6:26 Name that Bond - 7:50 Thinking Time - 8:57 Share this Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KjoQHqgzda8 Resources: Polyatomic Ion Cheat Sheet: http://bit.ly/14e2pbw Periodic Table: http://bit.ly/ptable9 Related Videos: Related Videos: Naming Ionic and Covalent Compounds: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9XUsOLaz3zY Metallic Bonding: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3uNETGK_sb4 Molecular Geometry: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-pq2wum1uDc Intermolecular Forces: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wYZg1j7o2x4 Contact Me: [email protected] Follow Me: http://www.twitter.com/#!/mrcausey http://pinterest.com/mistercausey/ http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=814523544
Views: 288809 Mr. Causey
Ionic Bonding Introduction
 
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To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry This video is an introduction to ionic bonding, which is one type of chemical bonding. Ionic bonds hold together metal and nonmetal atoms. In ionic bonding, electrons are transferred from a metal atom to a nonmetal atom, creating ions. These ions have opposite charge, so they stick together. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC
Views: 1087136 Tyler DeWitt
Intermolecular Forces - Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole, Ion-Dipole, London Dispersion Interactions
 
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This chemistry video tutorial focuses on intermolecular forces such hydrogen bonding, ion-ion interactions, dipole dipole, ion dipole, london dispersion forces and van deer waal forces. It contains plenty of examples and practice problems to help you understand the most important concepts related to this material. General Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BV-uX6wXQgyqZXvRd0tUUV0&index=3 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/ Here is a list of topics: 1. Ion - Ion dipole interactions of KF and CaO 2. Electrostatic Force and Lattice Energy- The effect of charge and ionic radii or size 3. How To Determine Which Ionic Compound has a Higher Melting Point - NaF vs KCl 4. Ion-Dipole Interactions - NaCl and H2O 5. Definition of a Dipole - Polar Molecules & Charge Separation 6. Dipole-Dipole Interactions of Polar Molecules - Partial Charge Electrostatic Attractions of CO 7. Hydrogen Bonding between Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine 8. Intermolecular Forces vs Intramolecular Forces 9. Hydrogen Bonding vs Polar & Nonpolar Covalent Bonds 10. London Dispersion Forces & Van Der Waals Forces 11. Permanent Dipoles and Temporary Induced Dipoles - Distribution of electrons in electron cloud 12. Difference Between Atoms and Ions - Cations vs Anions - Number of Electrons and Protons 13. The relationship between Polarizability and Dispersion Forces 14. How To Determine the Strongest Intermolecular Forces In Compounds Such as MgO, KCl, H2O, CH4, CO2, SO2, HF, CH3OH, LiCl, CH2O, CO, and I2 15. The relationship between Boiling Point and Vapor Pressure 16. Straight Chained vs Branched Alkanes - Boiling Point and Intermolecular Forces - Surface Area 17. Ranking Boiling Point In Order of Increasing Strength for I2, Br2, F2, and Cl2 18. Polar and Nonpolar Organic Compounds - Polarity and Water Solubility 19. Ranking Boiling In Decreasing Order For HF, HCl, HBr, and HI 20. The effect of Molar Mass and Number of electrons on the Overall Intermolecular Force / LDF
Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
 
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Let's make this super easy! This video breaks down what you need to know to pass your next chemistry test on naming compounds with polyatomic ions. Plus I'll go over a trick to help you memorize polyatomic ions faster! 📗 FREE CHEMISTRY SURVIVAL GUIDE https://melissa.help/freechemguide 🙋‍♀️🙋‍♂️GOT A QUESTION? ASK ME HERE https://melissa.help/me 👉 SHOP MY STEP-BY-STEP CHEMISTRY NOTES👈 https://melissamaribel.com/ -Thermochemistry Notes https://melissa.help/thermonotes -Acids and Bases Notes https://melissa.help/acidbase1notes -Naming Compounds and Acids Notes https://melissa.help/namingnotes -Dimensional Analysis, Significant Figures, and Density Notes https://melissa.help/sigfignotes -Gas Laws Notes https://melissa.help/gaslawsnotes -Stoichiometry Notes https://melissa.help/stoichnotes -Redox Reactions Notes https://melissa.help/redoxnotes -Molarity Notes https://melissa.help/molaritynotes -Limiting Reactants Notes https://melissa.help/limreactnotes -Lewis Structures Notes https://melissa.help/lewisnotes -Kinetics Notes https://melissa.help/kineticsnotes 🧡SHOW YOUR SUPPORT ON PATREON https://www.patreon.com/melissamaribel 👍MELISSA'S FAVORITES ON AMAZON https://www.amazon.com/shop/chemistrywithmelissamaribel --OTHER RESOURCES TO HELP YOU GET THROUGH SCHOOL-- 🙌 This was my go-to homework help when I was in school. Chegg Study is one of my favorites. https://che.gg/melissamaribelstudy 📚 I made the mistake of buying all of my textbooks, I wish I had the option of renting them. Thankfully you do, with Chegg Textbook Rentals. https://che.gg/melissamaribelrentals 💰 If you bought a textbook and don’t want the hassle of selling it, Chegg can do the work for you, with Chegg Buyback. https://che.gg/melissamaribelbuyback 📝 QUICKSTUDY REFERENCE GUIDES ⬇️ 📕 CHEMISTRY BREAKDOWN AND REVIEW https://amzn.to/2t50xWx 📙 CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND ANSWERS https://amzn.to/2MPjC88 📘 CHEMISTRY TERMINOLOGY https://amzn.to/2t9cv1o DISCLAIMER: Some links in the description are affiliate links, which means that if you buy from those links, I’ll receive a small commission. This helps support the channel and allows me to continue making videos like this. Thanks for the support! 💁‍♀️ HI I'M MELISSA MARIBEL I help students pass Chemistry. I used to struggle with this subject, so when I finally graduated with a bachelor's degree in Chemistry, I became a tutor so that you wouldn't have to struggle like I did. I know that with the right help, YOU CAN LEARN ANYTHING! 👋 FOLLOW ME Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/hellomelissam/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/hellomelissam/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/hellomelissam
Views: 29038 Melissa Maribel
JEE Main 2018 Chemistry Question- Which of the following compounds contain(s) no covalent bond(s)?
 
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JEE Knockout Crash Course Target JEE January - https://bit.ly/2LsaQeC Target JEE April - https://bit.ly/2zHSYuZ JEE Knockout Crash Course Target JEE January - https://bit.ly/2LsaQeC Target JEE April - https://bit.ly/2zHSYuZ Detailed Explanation: Which of the following compounds contain(s) no covalent bond(s) ? KCl, PH3, O2, B2H6, H2SO4 Option 1) KCl, B2H6, Option 2) KCl, B2H6, PH3, Option 3) KCl, H2SO4 Option 4) KCl https://bit.ly/2REeLIv
Ionic Solids, Molecular Solids, Metallic Solids, Network Covalent Solids, & Atomic Solids
 
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This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into solids. It explains how to classify a solid as ionic solids, molecular solids or atomic solids. There are 3 different types of atomic solids that you need to be familiary with - metallic solids, Group 8A solids, and network covalent solids. Ionic solids are typically made up of metals and nonmetals. Ionic solids contain ions with positive and negative charges. Molecular solids are composed of molecules and have very low melting points. Ionic solids typically have high melting points. Metallic solids are composed of metals with varying melting points. Metallic solids conduct heat and electricity very well. They are ductile and malleable. Group 8A solids which are basically the noble gases have extremely low melting points. Finally, the network atomic solids or network covalent solids have a very high melting point which typically varies with pressure. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Sigma and Pi Bonds Explained, Basic Introduction, Chemistry
 
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This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into sigma and pi bonds. It explains how to calculate the number of sigma and pi bonds in a molecule given its lewis structure. It contains plenty of examples and practice problems. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Ionic and covalent bonding animation
 
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Ionic bonding formed when one atom has sufficient strength of attraction to remove ion from the other atom. Covalent bonding occurs when neither atom has sufficient strength to remove the other atom's electron. They would instead share electrons to form stable configurations of electrons.
Views: 1246925 kosasihiskandarsjah
Polar Covalent, Nonpolar Covalent & Ionic Bonds
 
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This video is Awesome! Understand Bonding Like Never Before. Polar Covalent, Nonpolar Covalent & Ionic Bonds - This video shows how to determine the type of bond that will form based on electronegativity values. The difference in electronegativity values result in the bond being ionic, non polar covalent or polar covalent. Ionic bonds result from the transfer of electrons, polar covalent from the uneven sharing of electrons and non polar covalent bonds from the even sharing of electrons. Tune in for the video on Polar Molecules.
Views: 131766 sciencepost
Polar Molecules Tutorial: How to determine polarity in a molecule
 
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This video looks at how to determine polarity in a molecule by understanding how the bond polarities, molecule shape, and outside atoms influence polarity using bond polarity vector addition. This includes a flow chart that guides you through the various decisions needed to determine if a molecule is polar or not. Wikipedia 1/1/2018: In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment. Polar molecules must contain polar bonds due to a difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms. A polar molecule with two or more polar bonds must have a geometry which is asymmetric in at least one direction, so that the bond dipoles do not cancel each other. While the molecules can be described as "polar covalent", "nonpolar covalent", or "ionic", this is often a relative term, with one molecule simply being more polar or more nonpolar than another. However, the following properties are typical of such molecules. A molecule is composed of one or more chemical bonds between molecular orbitals of different atoms. A molecule may be polar either as a result of polar bonds due to differences in electronegativity as described above, or as a result of an asymmetric arrangement of nonpolar covalent bonds and non-bonding pairs of electrons known as a full molecular orbital. Polar molecules[edit] The water molecule is made up of oxygen and hydrogen, with respective electronegativities of 3.44 and 2.20. The dipoles from each of the two bonds (red arrows) add together to make the overall molecule polar. A polar molecule has a net dipole as a result of the opposing charges (i.e. having partial positive and partial negative charges) from polar bonds arranged asymmetrically. Water (H2O) is an example of a polar molecule since it has a slight positive charge on one side and a slight negative charge on the other. The dipoles do not cancel out resulting in a net dipole. Due to the polar nature of the water molecule itself, polar molecules are generally able to dissolve in water. Other examples include sugars (like sucrose), which have many polar oxygen–hydrogen (−OH) groups and are overall highly polar. If the bond dipole moments of the molecule do not cancel, the molecule is polar. For example, the water molecule (H2O) contains two polar O−H bonds in a bent (nonlinear) geometry. The bond dipole moments do not cancel, so that the molecule forms a molecular dipole with its negative pole at the oxygen and its positive pole midway between the two hydrogen atoms. In the figure each bond joins the central O atom with a negative charge (red) to an H atom with a positive charge (blue). The hydrogen fluoride, HF, molecule is polar by virtue of polar covalent bonds – in the covalent bond electrons are displaced toward the more electronegative fluorine atom. Ammonia, NH3, molecule the three N−H bonds have only a slight polarity (toward the more electronegative nitrogen atom). The molecule has two lone electrons in an orbital, that points towards the fourth apex of the approximate tetrahedron, (VSEPR). This orbital is not participating in covalent bonding; it is electron-rich, which results in a powerful dipole across the whole ammonia molecule. Resonance Lewis structures of the ozone molecule In ozone (O3) molecules, the two O−O bonds are nonpolar (there is no electronegativity difference between atoms of the same element). However, the distribution of other electrons is uneven – since the central atom has to share electrons with two other atoms, but each of the outer atoms has to share electrons with only one other atom, the central atom is more deprived of electrons than the others (the central atom has a formal charge of +1, while the outer atoms each have a formal charge of −​1⁄2). Since the molecule has a bent geometry, the result is a dipole across the whole ozone molecule. When comparing a polar and nonpolar molecule with similar molar masses, the polar molecule in general has a higher boiling point, because the dipole–dipole interaction between polar molecules results in stronger intermolecular attractions. One common form of polar interaction is the hydrogen bond, which is also known as the H-bond. For example, water forms H-bonds and has a molar mass M = 18 and a boiling point of +100 °C, compared to nonpolar methane with M = 16 and a boiling point of –161 °C. Nonpolar molecules[edit] A molecule may be nonpolar either when there is an equal sharing of electrons between the two atoms of a diatomic molecule or because of the symmetrical arrangement of polar bonds in a more complex molecule. Not every molecule with polar bonds is a polar molecule. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has two polar C=O bonds, but the geometry of CO2 is linear so that the two bond dipole moments cancel and there is no net molecular dipole moment; the molecule is nonpolar.
Views: 182050 Crash Chemistry Academy
√ Solubility of Covalent Molecular Substances | Water | Chemistry
 
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#iitutor #Chemistry #Water https://www.iitutor.com Most covalent molecular substances are insoluble in water, including hexane, chloroform, kerosene, paraffin. They do not contain polar bonds and cannot interact effectively with water molecules. However, some of covalent molecular substances, such as sugar, ethanol and urea, are soluble in water. The solubility of a covalent molecular substance depends on its polarity. As water is a very polar molecule, the only polar molecules are soluble in water. If molecules that contain O-H groups or N-H groups, they can form hydrogen bonding with water molecule and therefore, dissolve in water. Those molecules do not dissociate into ions, but remain as intact molecules. Soluble molecules: covalent molecular compounds that form hydrogen bonds with water. Polar covalent molecular compounds such as urea, glucose, sucrose, ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and methanol (CH3OH) are very soluble in water. Those substances contain OH groups or NH groups that can form hydrogen bonding with water molecules. Those substances exist as intact molecules in water, not ionised or dissociated. The solubility of the alcohol depends on whether the tendency of the -OH group to dissolve in water is greater than the tendency of the hydrocarbon part of the molecule to remain undissolved. In the smaller alcohol molecules the influence of the -OH group causes the alcohol to be soluble, but in larger alcohol molecules the influence of the hydrocarbon part limits the solubility. There are some polar molecules that are soluble in water by chemically reacting with it. Examples include hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen bromide (HBr), nitric acid (HNO3) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4). The covalent molecular gas hydrogen chloride (HCl) is very soluble in water. In this case the HC1 molecules undergo ionisation when dissolved in water. Water is an ionising solvent. Some solvents, such as benzene, cyclohexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform, that cannot react to produce hydronium ions with those molecular substances are called non-ionising solvent. Nitric acid undergoes the same ionisation. This formation of ions results in a solution of hydrogen chloride being able to conduct electricity. It is therefore classed as an electrolyte. Similarly, chlorine gas reacts with water. In a similar way carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia all react with water to varying extents. Thus the solubility of covalent substances can be significantly influenced by whether they react with water. Both dissociation and ionisation produce ions in solution. The basic difference is that in dissociation of ionic compounds, the ions are already present in the solid and separate to move into solution, whereas in ionisation of a covalent molecular substance such as HCI, the ions are formed due to the reaction with water. Insoluble large molecules is large covalent molecules such as cellulose and polyethene (polythene), do not dissolve in water, or most other solvents and this is because the very strong covalent bonds that form these large molecules cannot be broken by the weaker intermolecular forces (hydrogen bonds, dispersion forces) that could possibly be formed with the water molecules. Covalent network solids such as silicon, silicon dioxide and diamond are insoluble in water and most other solvents. This is because the very strong covalent bonds which form the crystal lattices of these substances cannot be broken by the weaker intermolecular forces that could be formed with water molecules. When some ionic substances crystallise from aqueous solution, water still can attach to the pure crystal. Water that becomes attached to a pure compound during the crystallisation process is called water of crystallisation. Such salts that contain water are called hydrate and salts that do not contain water are called anhydrous.
Views: 464 iitutor.com
Predict Bond Type - Covalent or Ionic 001
 
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Decide whether the following compounds are covalent or ionic: a) C6H6 b) Ba3N2 c) Br2 d) Al2O3 e) H2SO4