How Gold is made | Mines to manufacturing Gold uses & properties
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element.
Pure gold is soft and is usually alloyed with other metals, such as silver, copper, platinum or palladium, to increase its strength. Gold alloys are used to make jewelry, decorative items, dental fillings and coins. The amount of gold in an alloy is measured with a unit called a karat.
Gold gets its English name from the Germanic word gulþa (meaning gold). The Old English word geolu means yellow. In Latin, gold was called aurum. That is why the chemical symbol for gold is Au.
Origin of name: from the Anglo-Saxon word "gold" (the origin of the symbol Au is the Latin word "aurum" meaning "gold"). Gold has always fascinated people and gold is certainly one of the very first metals known.
Chemically speaking, gold is a transition metal. Transition metals are unique, because they can bond with other elements using not just their outermost shell of electrons (the negatively charged particles that whirl around the nucleus), but also the outermost two shells.
The most common gold compounds are auric chloride (AuCl3) and chlorauric acid (HAuCl4). A mixture of one part nitric acid with three of hydrochloric acid is called aqua regia (because it dissolved gold, the King of Metals). It is unaffected by air and most reagents.
Characteristics: Gold is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. It is a soft, yellow, metal with a beautiful lustrous sheen. It is the most malleable and ductile of all the elements and a single gram can be beaten into a sheet one square meter sheet of gold leaf.
Gold: physical properties. Gold is a soft metal with a number of interesting physical properties. Gold is both malleable and ductile. Gold is a heavy metal (density 19.3 g cm-3) and one gram of gold can be hammered out into a thin sheet of gold a metre in area, and just 230 atoms or so thick.
One karat is 1/24 part (by weight) pure gold, so pure gold is 24 karats. Many products use various gold alloys for various reasons, but most do because the alloys are cheaper (usually silver, copper, zinc, nickel, etc. are mixed in), but sometimes gold is alloyed to make it a stronger and less malleable material.
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Gold | How it is produced from mine and facts | Things made from Gold