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78th session of Housing and Land Management (Ministerial Meeting) UNECE, Geneva, 9 Nov 2017
 
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Azerbaijani Delegation led by Karam Hasanov (Chairman of State Property Issues Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan) attends the 78th session of the Committee on Housing and Land Management, Geneva, 9 November 2017
SUPREME COURT DOESN'T JUSTIFY HOPE OF RESIDENT FROM SHAMKIR
 
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Sahib Karimov, a resident of Shamkir who claims that his house was seized and converted into a wedding palace, will request the president of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev to provide him with a new house. "If my request is not fulfilled, I will have to ask for foreign states to grant me asylum"- said Sahib Karimov during a press conference at IRFS on Tuesday. n 1997, he bought house located at 246 Samad Vurgun Street. He later left his home together with his family to work in Russia. After returning back to his house in Shamkir, he saw that Morul wedding palace had replaced his house. The citizen appealed to Shamkir Regional Court and the State Committee for Property Issues, claiming that his house was destroyed illegally. In its answer to Karimov, the Committee for Property Issues reported that a non-residential property is being built where his house used to be. Karimov submitted receipts for utility payments, the deed of sale, and all the notarized documents to the organizations to which he appealed, but he didn't get anywhere. On December 29th 2010, Shamkir Regional Court ruled that no house existed at the address of 246Samad Vurgun Street. The Ganja Appeals Court upheld the original decision and on December 2,2011 Judge Ali Rustamov from the Supreme Court did not grant Kerimov's cassation appeal. Karimov claims that his damages amounted to150 thousand manats. According to unverified information, an influential minister is behind the building of this wedding place at this location. Karimov, his wife and child must now move in with his relatives "I will appeal to the European Court of Human Rights regarding this issue. However, it will take several years for consideration of the case. We did not know how we will live," said Sahib Karimov.
Views: 78 Obyektiv Tv
Ilham Aliyev and Mehriban Aliyeva at the International Real Estate and Investment Exhibition
 
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The 2nd Azerbaijan International Real Estate and Investment Exhibition is held at the Baku Expo Centre. On November 23, President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev and Mrs Mehriban Aliyeva familiarized themselves with the exhibition. Held with the organizational support of the State Committee for Property Issues, “Elan Expo” and “Atılım Fuarcılık” Companies, the 2nd International Real Estate and Investment Exhibition presents some 100 brand construction projects from Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Georgia, Cyprus, Ukraine, Spain, Russia, Portugal, Hungary, and Luxembourg, along with Azerbaijan.
BLOGGER OMAR MAMMADOV CONVICTED, PROSECUTOR SEEKS 7-YEAR JAIL SENTENCE FOR HASAN HUSEYNLI (30 JUNE-4
 
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The General Committee on Democracy, Human Rights and Humanitarian Questions of the OSCE PA has made three amendments concerning Azerbaijan in the resolution adopted on June 30, following discussions at its 23rd session in Baku. According to the 39th amendment proposed by the head of the Committee, Isabel Santos from Portugal, the resolution notes that the OSCE PA expresses concern about the abuse of administrative procedures and legislation for the purpose of detention, imprisonment, intimidation or forced silencing of human rights defenders in many OSCE participating states. The 44th amendment proposed by Norwegian MP Bekkevold expressed "deep concern about the situation of Anar Mammadli (Head of the Election Monitoring and Democracy Studies Center), representative of the Azerbaijani civil society and human rights activist, who was recently sentenced to imprisonment in a court case with obvious political overtones." Finally, the 45th amendment, proposed by Habsburg Douglas from Sweden, urges the Government of Azerbaijan to allow the OSCE to open a Regional Office in Baku. The Azerbaijani parliamentarians expressed protest against these amendments, which nevertheless were adopted by majority vote. OSCE PA Committee on Democracy, Human Rights and Humanitarian Questions adopted a resolution on protection of cultural property in OSCE region at its July 1 session in Baku. The document was presented by Azerbaijani MP Azay Guliyev. The resolution stresses importance of preserving the status of monuments and places related to history and culture regardless of their location. The draft resolution was proposed 10 amendments, of which 8 - by the Head of the Armenian delegation Artashes Geghamyan. Only two of Geghamyan's amendments were approved. The draft resolution author Guliyev had no objection towards these two amendments. The 23rd session of the Parliamentary Assembly of the OSCE held in the capital of Azerbaijan ended on July 2 with the adoption of Baku Declaration. Along with general issues relating to the activities of the OSCE, the declaration focuses on the actions of Russia against Ukraine. The declaration also made ​​a separate item with an appeal to the Azerbaijani authorities to release from prison the head of the Election Monitoring and Democracy Studies Center (EMDSC) Anar Mammadli, as well as to create him and the other victims of politicized courts conditions to continue their advocacy work. The declaration also called upon to restore the status of the OSCE Office in Baku, downgraded earlier to project coordinator. On July 2, former businessman Elshad Mammadov held a press conference at IRFS in connection with violation of his property rights. According to Mammadov, in 2012 he bought two flats in a sky-scraper near the Officers Park in Baku. The building was constructed by Avesta Group of Companies owned by Ibrahim Ibrahimli (Nehramli). But later he found out that some of the construction company's employees had sold one of the apartments to someone else without his knowledge. " With the help of courts, Ibrahimli then took away my second flat as well", said Mammadov. Mammadov also appealed to the courts, but they ruled in Ibrahimli's favor. The former businessman now intends to take the matter to the European Court, where his rights will be defended by lawyer Intigam Aliyev. On July 4, Nizami district court of Ganja city, under Judge Ayaz Mahmudov, held a hearing on the case of Hasan Huseynli, head of the Intelligent Citizen Enlightenment Center. According to lawyer Elchin Sadigov, the public prosecutor requested the court to sentence Huseynli to 7 years in prison. Huseynli is charged with stabbing his neighbor Arzu Gahramanov. Ganja City Main Police Office has opened a criminal case under Article 221.3 of the Criminal Code (hooliganism committed with use of a weapon). A restraining order has been imposed on Huseynli, which requires him not to leave his town of residence without permission while under investigation. The Baku Court on Grave Crimes announced verdict in blogger Omar Mammadov case on July 4, sentencing the young activist to 5 years in jail. Mammadov was convicted of illegal drug dealing. Omar Mammadov is a member of Civil Solidarity party and head of the "Akhin" (Flow) youth movement. After his arrest he re-joined NIDA movement. Mammadov was active social networker. Notably he was one of the admins of the Facebook Page "Selections from AzTV" which shared posts ridiculing and criticizing the faults of government officials. He was arrested in January of 2014 on charge of drug possession.
Views: 104 Obyektiv Tv
COURT HANDS DOWN JAIL SENTENCES TO BASHIR SULEYMANLI AND ANAR MAMMADLI
 
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On May 26, Baku Court on Grave Crimes chaired by Judge Rauf Aliyev announced verdict on the case of Anar Mammadli, chairman of the Election Monitoring and Democracy Studies Center (EMDS), Bashir Suleymanli, executive director of the organization, and Elnur Mammadov, head of the Volunteers International Cooperation Public Union. The court handed down 5.5 and 3.5 years of prison sentences to Mammadli and Suleymanli, and a 3.5-year conditional sentence to Mammadov. The hearing this morning started with speeches by the defendants' lawyers. Mammadli's lawyer Elchin Sadigov said that the criminal case itself was opened illegally, as the Serious Crimes Investigation Department of the Prosecutor General's Office does not have the right to start a criminal case on tax offences. "On the other hand, the remarks on non-payment of VAT are unfounded, because grants are exempt from this tax. VAT is not applied to grants awarded by the Council of State Support to NGOs. The largest NGO of the country, Heydar Aliyev Foundation does not pay VAT either" Sadigov said. Elnur Mammadov's lawyer Javad Javadli backed his colleague adding that in accordance with Azerbaijani legislation and intergovernmental agreement with the U.S., grants are exempt from VAT, which is referred to as the reason for opening the criminal case in question. Mammadli's second lawyer Irada Javadova drew attention to the fact that only one person from 20 victims and 21 witnesses gave evidence against the accused in court. She said the fact that grant agreement is not registered does not affect its status of a grant agreement, because "we are talking about provision of financial assistance for non-commercial activity". Suleymanli's lawyer Alibaba Rzayev shared the view of his colleagues, and expressed the opinion that the charge under Article 308.2 (abuse of power , entailing grave consequences, or committed in order to influence the outcome of elections (referendum) , reveals the true purpose of prosecution of the defendants. He believes that all other charges, in particular, appropriation, are meant to show as if the grant from the U.S. National Democratic Institute was "appropriated." "And if the funds have been appropriated, that means there was no monitoring of elections, and a critical report on its results has been "falsified." The essence of the conviction is that although nothing about it is noted in the indictment, during the trial it was confirmed that the actual monitoring was conducted," said Rzayev. Then the accused were given opportunity to speak. Anar Mammadov congratulated the attendees on the occasion of the Republic Day, noting that after the restoration of Azerbaijan's independence much could have been done to achieve the values ​​proclaimed 96 years ago by the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. However, persecution of people for freedom of expression and association shows that 22 years of independence were a time of missed opportunities. He further drew attention to the beginning of Azerbaijan's chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on May 14. The other day in the Champions League final match, Atletico Madrid football club entered the field in t-shirts saying "Azerbaijan - Land of Fire" which has attracted the world's attention to Azerbaijan. "But I fear that by the end of the chairmanship in the Council of Europe, Azerbaijan will become known as the "Land of political prisoners," said Mammadov. He further stated that the lawsuit was instituted to punish civil activism and independent monitoring of elections. "It is impossible that the organization conducting monitoring of elections since 2001 would have been a criminal organization, as the investigation tries to portray it," said Mammadov. He pointed out that the registration of EMDS' predecessor Election Monitoring Center was canceled in 2008 and the Justice Ministry refuses to register the new EMDS. Therefore Mammadov had to receive grants as an individual. But the organization has been transparent, and in 2008 through 2013 it received 480,000 manat as grants. These funds were exempt from VAT and some other taxes. Nevertheless, Mammadli paid taxes from his salary at an amount of 12,000 manat. However, after the change in the law at the beginning of 2013 for realization of the project of monitoring presidential elections, EMDS had to engage as a partner the Volunteers International Cooperation Public Union (VICPU). Mammadli pointed out the absurdity of the charges in influencing the outcome of the presidential election, for this article may refer to members of election commissions , state and municipal officials. Suleymanli and Mammadov also denied the charges, and called on the court to make an acquittal verdict.
Views: 213 Obyektiv Tv
ARMENIAN NEWS: BREAKING NEWS 15.03.2018
 
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https://news.am/eng/news/441109.html President of the Republic of Artsakh Bako Sahakyan, on Wednesday visited the US Congress. He met with a group of members of the foreign affairs committee, and discussed Artsakh-US relations, avenues for the settlement of the Azerbaijani-Karabakh conflict, and regional trends. The NKR President accentuated Washington’s considerable contribution to maintaining peace and stability in the region and in seeking a pacific and equitable solution to the Azerbaijani-Karabakh conflict. https://news.am/eng/news/441190.html A street in Istanbul will be renamed after slain Istanbul Armenian journalist Hrant Dink. According to the respective decision, Samanyolu Street in Sisli district will renamed to Hrant Dink Street. Şişli District Council has forwarded this decision to Istanbul Municipal Council, after whose approval the decision will come into force. https://news.am/eng/news/441189.html American actor and producer Dean Cain said he hopes Israel will recognize the Armenian Genocide. During his visit to Israel, Cain spoke to The Jerusalem Post and voiced the importance of recognizing this tragedy. Cain noted that although he would not tell a foreign country what to do, he hopes every government would recognize Armenian Genocide, because “it’s a historic fact.” https://news.am/eng/news/441141.html Foreign Minister of Armenia Edward Nalbandian is holding meetings in Copenhagen. On Wednesday he met with tax minister Karsten Lauritzen of Denmark to discuss development of trade and economic ties. The ministers signed the convention between Armenia and Denmark on the relief for double taxation of income and property, and on the prevention of tax evasion. Edward Nalbandian also met with Michael Starbæk Christensen, Permanent Under-Secretary of State of Denmark, responsible for Foreign Affairs. A number of issues related to the development of the Armenian-Danish relations were discussed. http://news.am/eng/news/441016.html UK Prime Minister Theresa May announced a range of economic and diplomatic measures, including the suspension of high-level bilateral contacts with Russia over poisoning of former spy Sergei Skripal. The UK announced Wednesday it will expel 23 Russian diplomats and promised to freeze Russian assets if they were used to threaten British interests. Later in the day UK blocked Russia-proposed statement on the Skripal incident at the meeting of the UN Security Council. Moscow denounced Theresa May's claims as baseless and promised to expel British diplomats in response. https://med.news.am/eng/news/17450/premer-ministr-armenii-poruchil-za-15-dneiy-obespechit-polnoe-vnedrenie-sistemiy-elektronnogo-zdravookhraneniya.html Armenian Prime Minister Karen Karapetyan instructed to ensure full implementation of the e-health system within 15 days. “At this stage, it is necessary to ensure the integration of all health facilities operating under the authority of the city and regional municipalities in the e-health system. The point is that in many places there is no Internet, and it is necessary to solve this problem shortly,” Karapetyan said. https://sport.news.am/eng/news/87216/fifa-armenia-world-ranking-unchanged.html Armenian national squad are still 91st in the new FIFA standings released on Thursday. The squad’s once 30th ranking, however, was a record-breaking high for the country. Reigning world champions Germany still top the FIFA World Ranking, where Brazil and current European champions Portugal are still second and third, respectively.
Views: 562 NewsamChannel
Թեղուտ՝ 10 տարի անց․ դբա լա՞վը | Teghut, 10 Years On
 
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2008-ին մեկնարկեց Թեղուտի հանքի ծրագիրը։ «Վալլեքս» խմբի ներկայացուցիչները խոստանում էին, որ հանքը սոցիալական մեծ օգուտներ է բերելու այս տարածքի բնակիչներին ու երկրին։ Այս տարվա սկզբին հանքն անակնկալ դադարեցրեց գործունեությունը՝ կրճատելով հազարից ավելի աշխատակիցների։ Տասը տարի անց, սակայն, բնակիչներին խոստացված օգուտները չկան, տարածքի գետերը թունավորվել են, անտառը ոչնչացվել է։ ՍիվիլՆեթի ֆիլմը Թեղուտի հանքի շահագործման խոստումների և այսօրվա իրականության մասին է։ - Subscribe to our channel: https://goo.gl/UnKG5U - Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/CivilNetTV - Find us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/CivilNet.TV - Check our website: https://www.civilnet.am/ © Նյութի հեղինակային իրավունքները պատկանում են Սիվիլիթաս հիմնադրամին: ՍիվիլՆեթի խմբագրական քաղաքականության համաձայն` արգելվում է օգտագործել ՍիվիլՆեթի նյութերը առանց պատշաճ հղման, ներբեռնել և այլ օնլայն հարթակից վերբեռնել ՍիվիլՆեթի պատրաստած և տարբերանշանը կրող տեսանյութերը` առանց համապատասխան համաձայնության: © Copyright of this report belongs to the Civilitas Foundation. In accordance with the editorial policy of CivilNet (the media project of the Civilitas Foundation), materials may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, displayed, published or broadcast without the prior consent of CivilNet. You may not alter or remove any trademark, copyright or other notice from copies of the content.
Views: 3639 CivilNet
Saskia Sassen - Amherst College - Sept. 20, 2018
 
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Saskia Sassen, the Robert S. Lynd Professor of Sociology at Columbia University and a member of its Committee on Global Thought, joined Spanish Professor and host of NPR's In Contrast, Ilan Stavans, for "Globalism and Its Discontents," as part of this year's Point/Counterpoint series. Transcript: https://www.amherst.edu/mm/565375 The rise of populism worldwide today, personified by Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin, is a fierce reaction to globalism policies of the past few decades. Anti-immigration movements in Europe and the United States; assaults on free speech; racial profiling; polarized politics; intolerance for gender, economic and linguistic diversity; the building of walls and the renegotiation of international trade treaties; the tension between rural and urban communities; and the questioning of the basic tenets of pluralism are some of the symptoms. Democracy itself might be at peril. More about the Point/Counterpoint series: https://www.amherst.edu/mm/564883
Views: 322 AmherstCollege
BeachTV Armenian Genocide Lecture
 
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100 Years Later: The Armenian Genocide and the Politics of Recognition and Denial.
Views: 201 Beach TV CSULB
Anti-Armenian sentiment in Azerbaijan | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Anti-Armenian sentiment in Azerbaijan 00:03:40 1 Early period 00:05:49 2 During the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict 00:09:24 3 Post-1994 era 00:10:20 3.1 Influence on Azerbaijani national identity 00:11:17 3.2 In the Media 00:12:27 3.3 Indoctrination in schools 00:13:46 3.4 Destruction of cultural heritage 00:15:29 3.5 Incidents of violence and hatred 00:16:49 3.6 Denying entry to Azerbaijan 00:18:09 3.7 Official position 00:19:53 3.7.1 Statements by President Ilham Aliyev 00:22:03 3.8 Stance on the Armenian Genocide 00:22:18 4 Reaction 00:22:27 4.1 Armenia 00:24:29 4.2 Azerbaijan 00:26:38 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Anti-Armenian sentiment is widespread in Azerbaijan, mainly due to the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh. According to the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI), Armenians are "the most vulnerable group in Azerbaijan in the field of racism and racial discrimination." According to a 2012 opinion poll, 91% of Azerbaijanis perceive Armenia as "the biggest enemy of Azerbaijan." The word "Armenian" (erməni) is widely used as an insult in Azerbaijan. "Negative stereotypes about Armenians are present in the majority of mass media outlets in Azerbaijan. Those stereotypes are somewhat shared by the public, and they definitely do not come out of nowhere. Stereotypical opinions circulating in the mass media have their deep roots in the public consciousness."Throughout the 20th century, Armenians and the Muslim inhabitants of the Caucasus—Azerbaijanis were called "Caucasian Tatars" before 1918— had been involved in numerous conflicts. Pogroms, massacres and wars solidified oppositional ethnic identities between the two groups, and have contributed to the development of national consciousnesses among both Armenians and Azeris. From 1918 to 1920, organized killings of Armenians occurred in Azerbaijan, especially in the Armenian cultural centers in Baku and Shusha, under the Russian Empire.However, contemporary Armenophobia in Azerbaijan traces its roots to the last years of the Soviet Union, when Armenians demanded that the Moscow authorities transfer the mostly Armenian-populated Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast in the Azerbaijan SSR to the Armenian SSR. In response to those Armenian demands, anti-Armenian rallies were held in various cities, where nationalist groups encouraged anti-Armenian feeling that led to pogroms in Sumgait, Kirovabad and Baku. An estimated 350,000 Armenians left between 1988 and 1990 as a direct result of the violence directed towards them.Disputes over the ownership of Nagorno-Karabakh eventually escalated into a large-scale military conflict, where Armenian forces took control of most of former NKAO and seven adjacent districts. According to HRW, systematic abuse of human rights was carried out by Karabakh Armenian forces and by the governments of Azerbaijan and Armenia. A cease-fire was achieved in 1994 and still remains in effect as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic is de facto independent, while de jure inside Azerbaijan's borders. The unresolved conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh as well as the presence of up to 880,000 refugees and IDPs in Azerbaijan contributed significantly to aggravating the economic, social and political situation in Azerbaijan, with around 14% of the country's territory occupied by Armenian forces.The Armenian side has accused the Azerbaijani government of carrying out anti-Armenian policy inside and outside the country, which includes propaganda of hate toward Armenia and Armenians and the destruction of Armenian cultural heritage.According to Fyodor Lukyanov, Editor-in-Chief of the journal Russia in Global Affairs, "Armenophobia is the institutional part of the modern Azerbaijani statehood and Karabakh is in the center of it". In 2011, the ECRI report on Azerbaijan stated that "the constant negative official and media discourse" against Armenia fosters "a negative climate of opinion regarding people of Armenian o ...
Views: 50 wikipedia tts
Historia Ukrainy (z napisami i tłumaczeniem)
 
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o Krymie: 39:43 Kozacy pomogli Rosji wygrać Krym z Turcji 56:55 Donbass 2:16:28 Krym zostaje przeniesiony na Ukrainę o Rosji 12:46 / 31:16 𝐦𝐢𝐬𝐬𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐦𝐢𝐬𝐬𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐩𝐚𝐫𝐭: 1:47:38 NARODZINY NARODU (2008) Jerzy Hoffman 1:34 Kijów (401-500) 2:16 Bizancjum (330-1453) 2:45 Księżniczka Olga (890 - 969) akceptuje chrześcijaństwo 3:28 Chersonese 4:06 Wołodymyr Wielki (958 - 1015) 4:29 Jarosław Mądry (978-1054) 4:39 Katedra Św. Zofii (1100) 5:31 Anna - królowa Francji (1030-1075) 18:41 Vladimir Monomakh (1053-1125) 7:20 Yu Dolgoruky (1099-1157) 7:26 Moskwa 7:37 Mongołowie 10:16 Księstwo Gal-Vol lub Królestwo Rosji 10:49 Lwów Termin MALOROSCIA: początek XIV wieku https://youtu.be/ZC510lQY9zQ?t=30 12:37 Iwan III Grozny (1440-1505) 12:46 Mit o Rosji 13:07 Krym 13:53 Roksolana (1502 - 1558) 15:20 Polskie pańszczyzna 17:14 Zaporizhzhya Sich 18:33 UKR zmienia nazwę RUS 18:40 Kozak 20:15 Brest Union 20:18 Unici - wschodni katolicy Kościoła 21:08 Hetman Sagaidachny (1570 - 1622) 23:05 Prawosławie 23:28 Jestem Vishnevetsky (1612 - 1651) 23:31 Katolicyzm 24:54 B Chmielnicki (1595 - 1657) 30:04 Perejasław Rada 1654 34:39 I Mazepa (1639 - 1709) 37:06 Bitwa pod Połtawą (1709) 40:11 Sycz w Zaporożu (1552-1709) 40:27 Solovki - Rewolucja Franza (1789) 48:18 jest zabronione przez Kościół greckokatolicki 48:49 Uniwersytet Kijowski (1833) 50:55 T. Shevchenko (1814 - 1861) (47 lat) 54:57 niebiesko-żółta flaga 55:45 Bractwo Cyryla i Metodego 56:32 ruch wyzwolenia narodowego 56:55 Krymska wojna (1853-1856) 57:07 Aleksander II (1818 - 1881) znosi poddaństwo 57:26 Donieck (1868) 58:56 "Zielony klin" 59:23 W Antonowiczu (1834 - 1908) 59:28 M Drahomanov (1841-1895) 1:00:42 L Ukrainka (1871 - 1913) (42 lata) 1:02:13 NTSh (1873) 1:11:03 M Grushevsky 1:03:27 I Franco (1856 - 1916) 1:04:22 "Historia Ukr-Rus" 1:04:49 Metropolitan A Sheptytsky (1865 - 1944) świadomość narodowa na emigracji 1:06:31 Pierwsza wojna światowa z 1914 roku 1:07:32 Dontsov (1883 - 1973) 1:07:57 (1914) Rosyjska okupacja 1:11:24 Z Petliurą https://youtu.be/axdY3GH-qYE 1:11:24 Zah-ukr Nara Response ZUNR 1:19:27 Ukr Galicyjska Armia 1:30:48 Ros. głód (1921) 1:41:21 HOLODOMOR (1932-1933) 11 000 000 ofiar 1:45:55 (1937-1938) zostały wykonane aresztowania - Gułag 1:46:54 niszczenie ukr ident 1:49:11 Ukr Sojusz Narodów Demokratycznych (UNDO) 1:42:20 Strzelec "Ukr Sich" 1:50:49 (UFO) Ukr Army Org (Praga) Istnieją Konovalety 1:51:19 D Dontsov - ideolog z ukr. nacjonalizm 1:52:00 (młodzież) UWO jest członkiem -: Org Ukr Nat (OUN) 1:52:52 (w Polsce w 1933 r.) Wraz z Banderą zostaje szefem OUN 1:55:03 I Wołoszyn 1:55:27 Upadek Karpaty-Ukrainy dzieli OUN na dwie frakcje: Melnikovtsev i Banderivtsi 1:56:11 Druga wojna światowa (1939-1945) 1:59:17 ślady NKWD - Batalion Nachtigall (słowika-Bandera) 1:51:43 Niezależny Ukr. Państwo 1:44:50 Bandera (1909 - 1959) 1:53:42 Babin Yar 1:55:40 Wojna partyzancka 1:44:01 Organizacja nacjonalistów "Ukr" (OUN) 1:57:42 Roman Szuachewicz 1:58:37 Wołyń 1:58:57 UPA - Ukraińska Armia Powstańcza 2:00:04 czystki etniczne (1943) 2:02:32 SS Dywizja Galicyjska 1:39:56 RUSIN zmienia termin ukraiński 2:06:14 Gułag 2:06:31 Jałta 2:10:30 Operacja "Wisła" 2:12:00 Anulowanie Kościoła greckokatolickiego 1:49:25 aneksja Zach Ukr 2:16:33 Powrót Krymu na Ukrainę 2:18:25 Odwilż (1950-1960) 2:30:09 (26 kwietnia 1986) - Katastrofa w Czarnobylu 2:35:30 Ruch 2:37:29 (1991) Niezależność 2:50:29 "Pomarańczowa rewolucja" (2004)
Views: 1075 kasia prada
Robert Wintemute on "Israel Palestine - Is it Apartheid, and is Boycott Justified and Legal?
 
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Title: "Israel Palestine - Is it Apartheid, and is boycott justified and legal?" Speaker: Robert Wintemute, King’s College London, UK Date: Sept 20, 2017 url: https://nathanson.osgoode.yorku.ca/events/robert-wintemute-israel-palestine-apartheid-boycott-justified-legal/
APOCALYPSE - STALIN
 
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APOCALYPSE - STALIN
Views: 7274 BLACK DRAGON
Sharia in the West? with John Witte, Jr.
 
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John Witte, Jr., Director, Center for the Study of Law and Religion, Emory University, explores a new issue of religious freedom and family law that is now confronting many Western democracies: to what extent may Islamic and other religious communities have the freedom to develop their own internal religious laws to govern the sex, marriage, and family lives of their voluntary faithful. Series: "UC Berkeley Graduate Council Lectures" [7/2011] [Public Affairs] [Show ID: 21039]
History of Armenia & Armenians - by Wiki Article
 
01:03:41
This is a synthesized speech reading of the Wikipedia article "Armenia" and is intended primarily for blind and visually impaired individuals who can not view Wikipedia. This video can also be used for mobile users who wish to listen to Wikipedia articles on the go, or by those who wish to learn a second language by reading the captions in that language while listening in English. Image source and copyright details: http://wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_o... Original article available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenia
Views: 5127 Khachakirner1992
John Dziak: Old Lesson for New Wars: Counterintelligence at the Roots of Provocation and Terror
 
01:41:44
Dr. Dziak is co-founder and President of Dziak Group, a consulting firm in the fields of intelligence, counterintelligence, and technology transfer. He is a Distinguished Fellow in Intelligence Studies at the American Foreign Policy Council and also is a Senior Fellow at the International Assessment Strategy Center.
Views: 3372 WestminsterInstitute
FNN: NORAD tracking Santa delivering presents, holiday top stories
 
06:50:15
Sharing a mix of breaking news, Arizona stories, engaging discussions, and popular culture.
Views: 8665 FOX 10 Phoenix
ARPA | (3) United Armenian Council of Southern California {Harold DeMirjian}
 
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This lecture investigates the desirability and practicality of uniting the Armenians of Southern California by creating a central body, called "The Council". Representatives from all groups and religious, benevolent, cultural and political organizations is invited to form the Council. An outline of the most practical course of action is presented and a strategic plan will be discussed to achieve the objectives. The personal involvement of the Southern California Armenian community leaders is solicited and their direct recruitment will be sought, to join in the work towards making the long time dream of having a united Armenian body become a reality, one step at a time. Mr. Harold Avedis DeMirjian received his formal education in the United States. He is a graduate of the University of Southern California, School of Engineering, with B.S. and M.S. degrees in petroleum exploration and production technology. He is a registered professional engineer. Mr. DeMirjian has worked for the Getty Oil Company, and its predecessors, for over 30 years. His experiences include drilling of oil wells, production of oil and gas, reservoir engineering, strategic planning, property acquisition, diversification and applied research. His last assignment was manager of operations of the international oil and gas exploration and production division. He has also served as Vice President of two European Subsidiaries of the Getty Oil Company. He has pioneered, developed and refined a highly successful enhanced oil recovery process known as Thermal recovery. He is retired since 1985. During recent years he has consulted in energy technology and resources application fields. However, he spends most of his time for charitable and community projects in Southern California. After the big earthquake of Armenia in 1988, he visited the Republic of Armenia over fifteen times. He supervised an international group, funded through the USAID and charged to explore the oil and gas production potential of Armenia. He is a founding member and treasurer of the ARPA Institute, has served on the Boards of Directors of the Haigazian University, Armenian Evangelical Schools of Southern California and the United Armenia Congregational Church of LA, as well as on numerous committees of community organized action groups.
Views: 143 Hagop Panossian
Daily Press Briefing - October 3, 2016
 
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Director of the Office of Press Relations, Elizabeth Trudeau, leads the Daily Press Briefing at the Department of State on October 3, 2016. A full transcript is available at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/dpb/2016/10/
Holocaust and Genocide Lecture Series - March 13, 2018 - Maral N. Attallah, Ph.D.
 
01:47:28
Title: Armenian Genocide: Legacies of Survival Speaker: Maral N. Attallah, Ph.D., Distinguished Lecturer, Humboldt State University Armenian Genocide Memorial Lecture Description: The Holocaust & Genocide Lecture Series is supported by the SSU Instructionally Related Activities (IRA) Fund, the Alliance for the Study of the Holocaust and Genocide, the Paul V. Benko Holocaust Education Endowment, the Armenian Genocide Memorial Lecture Fund, the Adele Zygielbaum En, the Thomas Family Foundation, the Center for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide and the Jewish Community Federation (JCF).
Views: 159 CSUSonoma
Fresno State Talks - Dr. Sergio La Porta
 
35:03
Who Cares? Genocide, Historical Memory, and Moral Responsibility 2015 marks the centenary of the Armenian Genocide in which approximately 1.5 million Armenians were killed and countless others sent into exile by the Young Turk regime of the Ottoman Empire. This talk will explore how the Armenian Genocide represents a pivotal moment in the making of modernity, and thus constitutes an essential part of who we are as a world civilization today. It will also foreground the challenges the Armenian Genocide, along with other genocides, pose to our post-modern perspective which often views conflict as a series of competing narratives.
Views: 451 Fresno State
Daily Press Briefing: November 5, 2012
 
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U.S. Department of State Spokesperson Victoria Nuland leads the Daily Press Briefing at the U.S. Department of State in Washington, D.C. on November 5, 2012. [Go to http://video.state.gov for more video and text transcript.]
LD19   South Dakota Senate
 
02:06:25
Views: 51 SDPB
Indian dancers practice to 'Jai ho' song for International City parade in Andhra Pradesh
 
02:02
Indian dancers practice on 'Jai ho' song for International City Parade during International Fleet Review on Beach Road in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. The Hon’ble President of India being the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, once in his/her term, reviews the Indian Naval (IN) Fleet as part of the ‘President’s Fleet Review’ (PFR). This review aims at assuring the country of the Indian Navy’s preparedness, high morale and discipline. Many leading nations of the world use the opportunity provided by the Fleet Review to enhance mutual trust and confidence with their maritime neighbours and partners by inviting their ships to participate in the review. Normally called ‘International Fleet Review’ (IFR), this event then allows the host nation an occasion to display its maritime capabilities and the ‘bridges of friendship’ and trust it has built with other maritime nations. The last IFR was conducted in January 2001, off Mumbai with participation from 29 countries. This earned the country widespread appreciation and goodwill. A Naval Fleet Review is a long-standing tradition followed by navies all over the world. It is a grand occasion when every operational ship is spruced up, proudly displaying its crest and its company in a spirit of loyalty and allegiance to its sovereign and the state. The idea of a Review was perhaps conceived as a show of naval might or an inspection of readiness for battle at sea. It still has the same connotation, but assembling of warships without any belligerent intentions is now the norm in modern times. Later reviews were used as a celebratory demonstration for victories in battle, for a coronation or on the occasion of the visit of royal guests. On many occasions, ships have sailed across the seas to participate in fleet reviews of friendly nations. While India boasts of a maritime tradition dating back to Vedic times, we do not have any authentic reports of fleet reviews of the past except for a mention of two influential women demanding a fleet review during the supremacy of the Marathas. Source : ifr16.indiannavy.gov.in This footage is part of the professionally-shot broadcast stock footage archive of Wilderness Films India Ltd., the largest collection of HD imagery from South Asia. The collection comprises of 100, 000+ hours of high quality broadcast imagery, mostly shot on HDCAM / SR 1080i High Definition, Alexa, SR, XDCAM and 4K. Write to us for licensing this footage on a broadcast format, for use in your production! We are happy to be commissioned to film for you or else provide you with broadcast crewing and production solutions across South Asia. We pride ourselves in bringing the best of India and South Asia to the world... Please subscribe to our channel wildfilmsindia on Youtube for a steady stream of videos from across India. Also, visit and enjoy your journey across India at www.clipahoy.com , India's first video-based social networking experience! Reach us at rupindang [at] gmail [dot] com and [email protected] To SUBSCRIBE click the below link: www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=WildFilmsIndia Like & Follow Us on: Facebook: www.facebook.com/WildernessFilmsIndiaLimited Website: www.wildfilmsindia.com
Views: 134340 WildFilmsIndia
Armenia | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Armenia Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Armenia ( ( listen); Armenian: Հայաստան, translit. Hayastan, IPA: [hɑjɑsˈtɑn]), officially the Republic of Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, translit. Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun, IPA: [hɑjɑstɑˈni hɑnɾɑpɛtutʰˈjun]), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia. The Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301. The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks. An Armenian principality and later a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires, repeatedly ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, and in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment. The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh, which was proclaimed in 1991.
Views: 65 wikipedia tts
Holocaust and Genocide Lecture Series - March 6, 2018 - Sergio La Porta, Ph.D.
 
01:55:51
Title: The Armenian Genocide Professor Sergio La Porta, Ph.D., CSU Fresno Armenian Studies Program Underwritten by the Armenian Genocide Memorial Lecture Fund Description: The Holocaust & Genocide Lecture Series is supported by the SSU Instructionally Related Activities (IRA) Fund, the Alliance for the Study of the Holocaust and Genocide, the Paul V. Benko Holocaust Education Endowment, the Armenian Genocide Memorial Lecture Fund, the Adele Zygielbaum En, the Thomas Family Foundation, the Center for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide and the Jewish Community Federation (JCF).
Views: 53 CSUSonoma
Republic
 
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A republic is a form of government in which power resides in the people, and the government is ruled by elected leaders run according to law (from Latin: res publica), rather than inherited or appointed (such as through inheritance or divine mandate). In modern times the definition of a republic is also commonly limited to a government which excludes a monarch. Currently, 135 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names. Both modern and ancient republics vary widely in their ideology and composition. In the classical and medieval period of Europe many states were fashioned on the Roman Republic, which referred to the governance of the city of Rome between it having kings, and emperors. The Italian medieval and Renaissance political tradition today referred to as "civic humanism", in America, is sometimes considered to derive directly from Roman republicans such as Sallust and Tacitus. However, Greek-influenced Roman authors, such as Polybius and Cicero, sometimes also used the term as a translation for the Greek politeia which could mean regime generally, but could also be applied to certain specific types of regime which did not exactly correspond to that of the Roman Republic. Republics were not equated with classical democracies such as Athens, but had a democratic aspect. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 151 Audiopedia
History of the Kurdish people
 
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The Kurds are an ethnic Iranian group who have historically inhabited the mountainous areas to the south of Caucasus (Northern Zagros and Eastern Taurus mountain ranges), a geographical area collectively referred to as Kurdistan. Most Kurds speak an Indo-European language belonging to the Northwestern Iranian branch. There are various hypotheses as to predecessor populations of the Kurds, such as the Carduchoi of Classical Antiquity. The earliest known Kurdish dynasties under Islamic rule (10th to 12th centuries) are the Hasanwayhids, the Marwanids, the Shaddadids, followed by the Ayyubid dynasty founded by Saladin. The Battle of Chaldiran of 1514 is an important turning point in Kurdish history, marking the alliance of Kurds with the Ottomans. The Sharafnameh of 1597 is the first account of Kurdish history. Kurdish history in the 20th century is marked by a rising sense of Kurdish nationhood focused on the goal of an independent Kurdistan as scheduled by the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920. Partial autonomy was reached by Kurdistan Uyezd (1923–1926) and by Iraqi Kurdistan (since 1991), while notably in Turkish Kurdistan, an armed conflict between the PKK and Turkish Armed Forces was ongoing from 1984 to 1999, and the region continues to be unstable with renewed violence flaring up in the 2000s. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 14420 Audiopedia
Internet censorship by country | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_censorship_and_surveillance_by_country 00:00:13 1 Classifications 00:00:53 1.1 iFreedom on the Net/i reports 00:03:07 1.2 OpenNet Initiative 00:06:55 1.3 Reporters Without Borders 00:07:04 1.3.1 RWB iEnemies of the Internet/i and iCountries under Surveillance/i lists 00:08:53 1.3.2 RWB iSpecial report on Internet Surveillance/i 00:10:07 1.4 iCountry Reports on Human Rights Practices/i 00:11:08 2 Alphabetical index to classifications 00:11:20 3 Country classifications 00:12:05 3.1 Pervasive censorship or surveillance 00:13:18 3.1.1 span  00:15:41 3.1.2 span  00:17:56 3.1.3 span  00:20:32 3.1.4 span  00:22:30 3.1.5 span  00:25:01 3.1.6 span  00:27:13 3.1.7 span  00:29:24 3.1.8 span  00:30:31 3.1.9 span  00:31:33 3.1.10 span  00:32:17 3.1.11 span  00:33:52 3.1.12 span  00:34:42 3.1.13 span  00:36:47 3.1.14 span  00:38:31 3.1.15 span  00:39:26 3.1.16 span  00:40:48 3.1.17 span  00:42:43 3.1.18 span  00:44:10 3.1.19 span  00:46:13 3.2 Substantial censorship or surveillance 00:47:28 3.2.1 span  00:49:48 3.2.2 span  00:51:28 3.2.3 span  00:53:20 3.2.4 span  00:54:12 3.2.5 span  00:56:33 3.2.6 span  00:58:33 3.2.7 span  00:59:46 3.2.8 span  01:01:40 3.2.9 span  01:07:53 3.2.10 span  01:11:20 3.3 Selective censorship or surveillance 01:12:31 3.3.1 span  01:15:08 3.3.2 span  01:15:55 3.3.3 span  01:18:44 3.3.4 span  01:20:10 3.3.5 span  01:22:45 3.3.6 span  01:24:45 3.3.7 span  01:26:51 3.3.8 span  01:29:59 3.3.9 span  01:30:39 3.3.10 span  01:33:38 3.3.11 span  01:35:06 3.3.12 span  01:36:50 3.3.13 span  01:38:41 3.3.14 span  01:41:01 3.3.15 span  01:42:26 3.3.16 span  01:43:35 3.3.17 span  01:45:57 3.3.18 span  01:47:00 3.3.19 span  01:48:18 3.3.20 span  01:50:28 3.3.21 span  01:54:21 3.3.22 span  01:56:15 3.3.23 span  01:57:18 3.3.24 span  01:58:38 3.3.25 span  02:00:32 3.3.26 span  02:00:40 3.3.27 span  02:03:36 3.3.28 span  02:03:44 3.3.29 span  02:06:29 3.3.30 span  02:08:09 3.3.31 span  02:09:56 3.3.32 span  02:10:50 3.3.33 span  02:13:11 3.3.34 span  02:14:22 3.3.35 span  02:16:58 3.3.36 span  02:21:15 3.3.37 span  02:24:44 3.3.38 span  02:26:14 3.3.39 span  02:27:21 3.3.40 span  02:28:20 3.4 Little or no censorship or surveillance 02:29:36 3.4.1 span  02:32:20 3.4.2 span  02:33:00 3.4.3 span  02:33:42 3.4.4 span  02:36:21 3.4.5 span  02:37:28 3.4.6 span  02:41:06 3.4.7 span  02:42:35 3.4.8 span  02:43:21 3.4.9 span  02:44:31 3.4.10 span  02:45:47 3.4.11 span  02:46:42 3.4.12 span  02:47:43 3.4.13 span  02:48:20 3.4.14 span  02:49:38 3.4.15 span  02:50:44 3.4.16 span  02:52:14 3.4.17 span  02:53:46 3.4.18 span  02:55:04 3.4.19 span  02:56:36 3.4.20 span  02:57:42 3.4.21 span  02:58:37 3.4.22 span  02:59:48 3.4.23 span  03:00:58 3.4.24 span  03:02:03 3.4.25 span  03:03:10 3.4.26 span  03:04:09 3.4.27 span  03:05:35 3.4.28 span  03:07:36 3.4.29 span  03:08:32 3.4.30 span  03:09:16 3.4.31 span  03:10:14 3.4.32 span  03:11:19 3.4.33 span  03:14:28 3.4.34 span  03:16:52 3.4.35 span  03:18:13 3.4.36 span  03:21:33 3.4.37 span  03:22:47 3.4.38 span  03:25:26 3.4.39 span  03:26:24 3.4.40 span  03:28:37 3.4.41 span  03:30:02 3.4.42 span  03:32:26 3.4.43 span  03:33:29 3.4.44 span  03:34:29 3.4.45 span  03:35:26 3.4.46 span  03:36:45 3.4.47 span  03:37:47 3.4.48 span  03:38:58 3.4.49 span  03:41:09 3.4.50 span  03:42:52 3.4.51 span  03:44:13 3.4.52 span  03:44:59 3.4.53 span  03:46:31 3.4.54 span  03:47:45 3.4.55 span  03:48:49 3.4.56 span  03:53:38 3.4.57 span  03:55:16 3.4.58 span  03:56:40 3.4.59 span  03:57:35 3.4.60 span  03:58:17 3.4.61 span  03:59:54 3.4.62 span  04:00:41 3.4.63 span  04:02:00 3.4.64 span  04:03:39 3.4.65 span  04:05:28 3.4.66 span  04:06:10 3.4.67 span  04:06:50 3.4.68 span    04:07:23 3.4.69 span  04:09:39 3.4.70 span  04:10:21 3.4.71 span  04:11:54 3.4.72 span  04:12:39 3.4.73 span  04:13:42 3.4.74 span  04:15:25 3.4.75 span  04:16:40 3.4.76 span  04:18:01 3.4.77 span  04:18:47 3.4.78 span  04:19:15 3.4.79 span  04:20:42 3.4.80 span  04:21:24 3.4.81 span  04:22:23 3.4.82 span  04:24:08 3.4.83 span  04:25:11 3.4.84 span  04:26:53 3.4.85 span  04:27:54 3.4.86 span  04:29:59 3.4.87 span  04:31:16 3.4.88 span  04:33:14 ...
Views: 66 wikipedia tts
History of Russia | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of Russia Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The History of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs and the Finno-Ugric peoples. The traditional beginning of Russian history is the establishment of Kievan Rus', the first united Eastern Slavic state, in 882. The state adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Orthodox Slavic culture for the next millennium. Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated as a state due to the Mongol invasions in 1237–1240 along with the resulting deaths of about half the population of Rus'. After the 13th century, Moscow became a cultural center, and by the 18th century, the Tsardom of Russia had grown to become the Russian Empire, stretching from eastern Poland to the Pacific Ocean. Peasant revolts were common, and all were fiercely suppressed. Russian serfdom was abolished in 1861, but the peasants fared poorly and often turned to revolutionary pressures. In the following decades, reform efforts such as the Stolypin reforms, the constitution of 1906, and the State Duma attempted to open and liberalize the economy and political system, but the tsars refused to relinquish autocratic rule or share their power. The Russian Revolution in 1917 was triggered by a combination of economic breakdown, war-weariness, and discontent with the autocratic system of government. It initially brought to power a coalition of liberals and moderate socialists, but their failed policies led to seizure of power by the communist Bolsheviks on 25 October. Between 1922 and 1991, the history of Russia is essentially the history of the Soviet Union, effectively an ideologically based state which was roughly conterminous with the Russian Empire before the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The approach to the building of socialism, however, varied over different periods in Soviet history, from the mixed economy and diverse society and culture of the 1920s to the command economy and repressions of the Joseph Stalin era to the "era of stagnation" in the 1980s. From its first years, government in the Soviet Union was based on the one-party rule of the Communists, as the Bolsheviks called themselves, beginning in March 1918. By the mid-1980s, with the weaknesses of its economic and political structures becoming acute, Mikhail Gorbachev embarked on major reforms, which led to the overthrow of the communist party and the breakup of the USSR, leaving Russia again on its own and marking the start of the history of post-Soviet Russia. The Russian Federation began in January 1992 as the legal successor to the USSR. Russia retained its nuclear arsenal but lost its superpower status. Scrapping the socialist central planning and state ownership of property of the socialist era, new leaders, led by President Vladimir Putin, took political and economic power after 2000 and engaged in an energetic foreign policy. Russia's recent annexation of the Crimean peninsula has led to severe economic sanctions imposed by the United States and the European Union.
Views: 18 wikipedia tts
Ottoman Empire | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:32:31
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Ottoman Empire Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= The Ottoman Empire (; Ottoman Turkish: دولت عليه عثمانیه‎, Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye, literally "The Exalted Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires. The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged. The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, and thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent, especially with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks.The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.
Views: 92 Subhajit Sahu
Internet censorship and surveillance by country | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_censorship_and_surveillance_by_country 00:00:13 1 Classifications 00:00:50 1.1 iFreedom on the Net/i reports 00:02:56 1.2 OpenNet Initiative 00:06:31 1.3 Reporters Without Borders 00:06:40 1.3.1 RWB iEnemies of the Internet/i and iCountries under Surveillance/i lists 00:08:22 1.3.2 RWB iSpecial report on Internet Surveillance/i 00:09:33 1.4 iCountry Reports on Human Rights Practices/i 00:10:30 2 Alphabetical index to classifications 00:10:41 3 Country classifications 00:11:24 3.1 Pervasive censorship or surveillance 00:12:34 3.1.1 span  00:14:50 3.1.2 span  00:16:57 3.1.3 span  00:19:24 3.1.4 span  00:21:15 3.1.5 span  00:23:37 3.1.6 span  00:25:40 3.1.7 span  00:27:43 3.1.8 span  00:28:47 3.1.9 span  00:29:46 3.1.10 span  00:30:28 3.1.11 span  00:31:56 3.1.12 span  00:32:44 3.1.13 span  00:34:41 3.1.14 span  00:36:20 3.1.15 span  00:37:12 3.1.16 span  00:38:28 3.1.17 span  00:40:16 3.1.18 span  00:41:38 3.1.19 span  00:43:35 3.2 Substantial censorship or surveillance 00:44:46 3.2.1 span  00:46:58 3.2.2 span  00:48:33 3.2.3 span  00:50:18 3.2.4 span  00:51:08 3.2.5 span  00:53:20 3.2.6 span  00:55:13 3.2.7 span  00:56:21 3.2.8 span  00:58:09 3.2.9 span  01:04:00 3.2.10 span  01:07:14 3.3 Selective censorship or surveillance 01:08:22 3.3.1 span  01:10:50 3.3.2 span  01:11:34 3.3.3 span  01:14:15 3.3.4 span  01:15:36 3.3.5 span  01:18:02 3.3.6 span  01:19:55 3.3.7 span  01:21:55 3.3.8 span  01:24:51 3.3.9 span  01:25:29 3.3.10 span  01:28:19 3.3.11 span  01:29:42 3.3.12 span  01:31:19 3.3.13 span  01:33:03 3.3.14 span  01:35:15 3.3.15 span  01:36:34 3.3.16 span  01:37:38 3.3.17 span  01:39:52 3.3.18 span  01:40:50 3.3.19 span  01:42:05 3.3.20 span  01:44:09 3.3.21 span  01:47:48 3.3.22 span  01:49:35 3.3.23 span  01:50:35 3.3.24 span  01:51:50 3.3.25 span  01:53:37 3.3.26 span  01:53:45 3.3.27 span  01:56:32 3.3.28 span  01:56:40 3.3.29 span  01:59:15 3.3.30 span  02:00:50 3.3.31 span  02:02:30 3.3.32 span  02:03:22 3.3.33 span  02:05:34 3.3.34 span  02:06:40 3.3.35 span  02:09:07 3.3.36 span  02:13:10 3.3.37 span  02:16:26 3.3.38 span  02:17:52 3.3.39 span  02:18:56 3.3.40 span  02:19:51 3.4 Little or no censorship or surveillance 02:21:03 3.4.1 span  02:23:40 3.4.2 span  02:24:18 3.4.3 span  02:24:58 3.4.4 span  02:27:29 3.4.5 span  02:28:31 3.4.6 span  02:31:59 3.4.7 span  02:33:23 3.4.8 span  02:34:07 3.4.9 span  02:35:13 3.4.10 span  02:36:26 3.4.11 span  02:37:18 3.4.12 span  02:38:17 3.4.13 span  02:38:52 3.4.14 span  02:40:05 3.4.15 span  02:41:08 3.4.16 span  02:42:35 3.4.17 span  02:44:02 3.4.18 span  02:45:16 3.4.19 span  02:46:44 3.4.20 span  02:47:47 3.4.21 span  02:48:39 3.4.22 span  02:49:48 3.4.23 span  02:50:54 3.4.24 span  02:51:56 3.4.25 span  02:53:00 3.4.26 span  02:53:56 3.4.27 span  02:55:18 3.4.28 span  02:57:13 3.4.29 span  02:58:07 3.4.30 span  02:58:49 3.4.31 span  02:59:45 3.4.32 span  03:00:46 3.4.33 span  03:03:44 3.4.34 span  03:06:01 3.4.35 span  03:07:17 3.4.36 span  03:10:27 3.4.37 span  03:11:37 3.4.38 span  03:14:06 3.4.39 span  03:15:00 3.4.40 span  03:17:06 3.4.41 span  03:18:27 3.4.42 span  03:20:44 3.4.43 span  03:21:44 3.4.44 span  03:22:41 3.4.45 span  03:23:35 3.4.46 span  03:24:51 3.4.47 span  03:25:50 3.4.48 span  03:26:57 3.4.49 span  03:29:00 3.4.50 span  03:30:38 3.4.51 span  03:31:56 3.4.52 span  03:32:40 3.4.53 span  03:34:06 3.4.54 span  03:35:16 3.4.55 span  03:36:16 3.4.56 span  03:40:48 3.4.57 span  03:42:21 3.4.58 span  03:43:41 3.4.59 span  03:44:33 3.4.60 span  03:45:13 3.4.61 span  03:46:46 3.4.62 span  03:47:31 3.4.63 span  03:48:45 3.4.64 span  03:50:19 3.4.65 span  03:52:03 3.4.66 span  03:52:44 3.4.67 span  03:53:21 3.4.68 span    03:53:52 3.4.69 span  03:56:00 3.4.70 span  03:56:41 3.4.71 span  03:58:09 3.4.72 span  03:58:52 3.4.73 span  03:59:52 3.4.74 span  04:01:31 3.4.75 span  04:02:42 3.4.76 span  04:03:58 3.4.77 span  04:04:42 3.4.78 span  04:05:09 3.4.79 span  04:06:32 3.4.80 span  04:07:12 3.4.81 span  04:08:08 3.4.82 span  04:09:47 3.4.83 span  04:10:46 3.4.84 span  04:12:25 3.4.85 span  04:13:23 3.4.86 span  04:15:22 3.4.87 span  04:16:34 3.4.88 span  04:18:26 ...
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Foreign relations of Taiwan
 
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The foreign relations of Taiwan, constitutionally and officially the Republic of China, are the relations between the Republic of China and other countries. The Republic of China is recognized by 21 United Nations member states, as well as by the Holy See. The ROC maintains diplomatic relations with those countries, as well as unofficial relations with other countries via its representative offices and consulates. The Republic of China participated in the Moscow Conference, the Dumbarton Oaks Conference, the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and was a charter member of the United Nations. In 1949, the Nationalists lost the Chinese Civil War in mainland China and retreated to Taiwan. Despite the major loss of territory, the ROC continued to be recognized as the legitimate government of China by the UN and by many non-Communist states. In 1971, the UN expelled the ROC and transferred China's seat to the People's Republic of China. In addition to the ad tempus recognition of ROC by majority of countries before UN Resolution 2758, the Republic of China lost its membership in all the intergovernmental organizations related to the UN. As the UN and related organizations like International Court of Justice are the most common venues for effective execution of international law and serve as the international community for states in the post-World War II period, a majority of the countries aligned with the West in the Cold War terminated diplomatic relations with the ROC and recognized quid pro quo of the PRC instead. However, the Republic of China fulfills all the requirements in Article 3, 4, 5, 6, 110 and Chapter V of the United Nations Charter. The ROC's de jure seat is currently occupied by the People's Republic of China in the United Nations under the UN Charter. The ROC continues to maintain de facto relations, including with most of the non-governmental organizations at the United Nations, in addition with the concern from UNESCO. Exclusively, the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, which is entitled by the founding of the United Nations as the cornerstone of modern-day diplomacy since the Vienna Congress, was signed and ratified by the Republic of China on 18 April 1961 and 19 December 1969 including Optional Protocol concerning the Compulsory Settlement of Disputes. Due to ROC's insecurity and intolerance in the 1970s and 1980s after being expelled by the UN and the termination of official US-ROC diplomatic relations, but by the American persuasion Taiwan has been gradually democratized and adopting universal suffrage from the one party-military rule under the leadership of President Chiang Ching-kuo. The first direct presidential election was held in 1996 and the incumbent President Lee Teng-hui was elected. As of May Fourth 2015, ROC nationals are eligible for preferential visa treatment from 142 countries and areas. In the context of Superpower and influential diplomacy, ROC's traditional and sober allies includes United States of America, Canada, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 474 Audiopedia
Armenian Genocide | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Armenian Genocide 00:02:02 1 Terminology 00:06:55 2 Background 00:07:04 2.1 Armenians under Ottoman rule 00:10:42 2.2 Reform, 1840s–1880s 00:15:41 2.3 Armenian national liberation movement 00:16:43 2.4 Hamidian massacres, 1894–1896 00:19:16 3 Prelude to the Genocide 00:19:26 3.1 The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 00:21:07 3.2 The Adana massacre of 1909 00:22:08 3.3 Conflict in the Balkans and Russia 00:23:49 4 World War I 00:25:15 4.1 Labour battalions 00:26:46 4.2 Van, April 1915 00:28:45 4.3 Arrest and deportation of Armenian notables, April 1915 00:30:20 4.4 Deportations 00:32:30 4.4.1 Death marches 00:36:36 4.4.2 Concentration camps 00:38:31 4.5 The "Special Organization" 00:39:46 4.6 Massacres 00:39:55 4.6.1 Mass burnings 00:41:11 4.6.2 Drowning 00:42:48 4.6.3 Use of poison and drug overdoses 00:45:13 4.7 Confiscation of property 00:48:33 4.8 Trials 00:48:41 4.8.1 Turkish courts-martial 00:51:12 4.8.2 Detainees in Malta 00:53:29 4.8.3 Trial of Soghomon Tehlirian 00:54:27 4.9 International aid to victims 00:55:43 5 Armenian population, deaths, survivors, 1914 to 1923 00:58:33 6 Eyewitness accounts and reports 00:59:32 6.1 The U.S. Mission in the Ottoman Empire 01:01:25 6.1.1 Ambassador Morgenthau's Story 01:02:21 6.2 Allied forces in the Middle East 01:04:01 6.2.1 Arnold Toynbee: iThe Treatment of Armenians/i 01:05:06 6.3 Austrian and German joint mission 01:11:53 6.3.1 Armin T. Wegner 01:13:28 6.4 Ottoman Empire and Turkey 01:21:23 6.5 Russian military 01:22:10 6.6 Scandinavian missionaries and diplomats 01:27:11 6.7 Persia 01:28:27 7 Studies on the Genocide 01:31:38 8 Recognition of the Genocide 01:34:14 8.1 Republic of Turkey and the Genocide 01:38:01 8.1.1 Controversies 01:44:41 8.2 The Republic of Armenia and the Genocide 01:46:09 9 Cultural loss 01:48:02 10 Reparations to the victims 01:48:12 10.1 Reparations on the grounds of international law 01:50:51 10.2 Sèvres Treaty 01:51:33 10.3 Lawsuits 01:52:15 11 Commemoration 01:52:24 11.1 Memorials 01:54:14 11.2 Portrayal in the media 01:58:34 12 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Armenian Genocide (Armenian: Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire. The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, arrested, and deported from Constantinople (now Istanbul) to the region of Ankara 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, the majority of whom were eventually murdered. The genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases—the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly, and the infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian Desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and massacre. Other ethnic groups were similarly targeted for extermination in the Assyrian genocide and the Greek genocide, and their treatment is considered by some historians to be part of the same genocidal policy. Most Armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a direct result of the genocide.Raphael Lemkin was moved specifically by the annihilation of the Armenians to define systematic and premeditated exterminations within legal parameters and coin the word genocide in 1943. The Armenian Genocide is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides, because scholars point to the organized manner in which the killings were carried out. It is the second most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust.Turkey denies the word genocide is an accurate term for these crimes. In recent years, Turkey has been faced with repeated calls ...
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"WHAT LIES HAVE YOU BEEN TAUGHT?" Full Panel Discussion
 
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https://nest.aacc.edu/organization/ptk AACC Phi Theta Kappa Omicron Theta Chapter hosted this panel discussion entitled "What Lies Have You Been Taught?" The discussion concentrated on the evidence of bias in how students learned about the Civil War in Maryland and Virginia. This is the culmination of the chapter's Honors in Action project. Panelists included Dr. Russell Rockefeller, Dr. Lester Brooks, Dr. Mary McKiel and John Grady. Recorded Thursday, Dec. 8, 2016, in Humanities 112.
Views: 65 AACC
Republic | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Republic Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic or representative democracy.As of 2017, 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments. While heads of state often tend to claim that they rule only by the "consent of the governed", elections in some countries have been found to be held more for the purpose of "show" than for the actual purpose of in reality providing citizens with any genuine ability to choose their own leaders.The term republic was first coined c. 500 BC in Rome, but over time the term has undergone several changes in meaning. Initially the Latin term res publica signified the earlier "partial form of democracy" as found in Rome from c. 500 BC until c. 27 BC. In this early Roman partial democracy, the power of the aristocratic or patrician class, who held all of the seats in the Roman Senate, was checked by the institution of the consulship, whose two consul/vice-rulers were elected annually by the free citizens, or plebs, of Rome. The ancient Roman definition of the word differs from the modern use of the term, where no leadership positions are held to be restricted to only the "ruling class".Most often a republic is a single sovereign state, but there are also sub-sovereign state entities that are referred to as republics, or that have governments that are described as "republican" in nature. For instance, Article IV of the United States Constitution "guarantee[s] to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government". In contrast, the former Soviet Union, which described itself as being a group of "Republics" and also as a "federal multinational state composed of 15 republics", was widely viewed as being an authoritarian form of government and not as a republican form of government. It was seen as authoritarian, as its electoral system was structured so as to automatically guarantee the election of government-sponsored candidates.
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First World War | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: First World War 00:06:48 1 Names 00:09:48 2 Background 00:09:57 2.1 Political and military alliances 00:12:25 2.2 Arms race 00:14:34 2.3 Conflicts in the Balkans 00:15:54 3 Prelude 00:16:03 3.1 Sarajevo assassination 00:18:08 3.2 Expansion of violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina 00:19:05 3.3 July Crisis 00:23:12 4 Progress of the war 00:23:21 4.1 Opening hostilities 00:23:30 4.1.1 Confusion among the Central Powers 00:24:17 4.1.2 Serbian campaign 00:24:59 4.1.3 German Offensive in Belgium and France 00:28:12 4.1.4 Asia and the Pacific 00:29:18 4.1.5 African campaigns 00:30:01 4.1.6 Indian support for the Allies 00:31:30 4.2 Western Front 00:31:39 4.2.1 Trench warfare begins 00:33:54 4.2.2 Continuation of trench warfare 00:37:33 4.3 Naval war 00:42:15 4.4 Southern theatres 00:42:24 4.4.1 War in the Balkans 00:46:00 4.4.2 Ottoman Empire 00:50:36 4.4.3 Italian participation 00:54:43 4.4.4 Romanian participation 00:57:39 4.5 Eastern Front 00:57:47 4.5.1 Initial actions 00:58:39 4.5.2 Russian Revolution 01:01:18 4.5.3 Czechoslovak Legion 01:02:43 4.6 Central Powers peace overtures 01:04:27 4.7 1917–1918 01:04:45 4.7.1 Developments in 1917 01:07:48 4.7.2 Ottoman Empire conflict, 1917–1918 01:10:53 4.7.3 15 August 1917: Peace offer by the Pope 01:11:55 4.7.4 Entry of the United States 01:15:30 4.7.5 German Spring Offensive of 1918 01:19:05 4.7.6 New states enter the war 01:20:23 4.8 Allied victory: summer 1918 onwards 01:20:34 4.8.1 Hundred Days Offensive 01:22:42 4.8.1.1 Battle of Albert 01:24:15 4.8.2 Allied advance to the Hindenburg Line 01:26:05 4.8.3 German Revolution 1918-1919 01:27:04 4.8.4 New German government surrenders 01:28:03 4.8.5 Armistices and capitulations 01:31:30 5 Aftermath 01:32:11 5.1 Formal end of the war 01:34:02 5.2 Peace treaties and national boundaries 01:38:33 5.3 National identities 01:41:52 5.4 Health effects 01:45:21 6 Technology 01:45:30 6.1 Ground warfare 01:50:58 6.1.1 Areas taken in major attacks 01:52:34 6.2 Naval 01:53:29 6.3 Aviation 01:55:35 7 War crimes 01:55:44 7.1 Baralong incidents 01:56:40 7.2 Torpedoing of HMHS iLlandovery Castle/i 01:57:27 7.3 Blockade of Germany 01:58:16 7.4 Chemical weapons in warfare 02:00:16 7.5 Genocide and ethnic cleansing 02:00:25 7.5.1 Ottoman Empire 02:02:04 7.5.2 Russian Empire 02:02:29 7.6 Rape of Belgium 02:03:54 8 Soldiers' experiences 02:04:30 8.1 Prisoners of war 02:08:11 8.2 Military attachés and war correspondents 02:08:37 9 Support for and opposition to the war 02:08:48 9.1 Support 02:12:19 9.2 Opposition 02:18:01 9.3 Conscription 02:18:27 9.3.1 Conscription in Canada 02:18:54 9.3.2 Conscription in Australia 02:19:25 9.3.3 Conscription in Britain 02:20:55 9.3.4 United States 02:22:56 9.3.5 Austria-Hungary 02:23:38 9.4 Diplomacy 02:24:29 10 Legacy and memory 02:24:53 10.1 Historiography 02:25:36 10.2 Memorials 02:27:16 10.3 Cultural memory 02:30:08 10.4 Social trauma 02:31:17 10.5 Discontent in Germany 02:33:15 10.6 Economic effects 02:39:28 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. An estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a direct result of the war, and it also contributed to later genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic, which caused between 50 and 100 million deaths worldwide. Military losses were exacerbated by new technological and industrial developments and the tactical stalemate caused by gruelling trench warfare. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history and precipitated major political changes, including the Revolutions of 1917–1923, in many of the nations involved. Unresolved rivalries ...
Views: 63 wikipedia tts
World War II by country | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: World War II by country Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Nearly every country and territory in the world participated in World War II, with the exception of only a few nations which remained neutral. The Second World War pitted two alliances against each other, the Axis powers and the Allied powers. The leading Axis powers were Nazi Germany, the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Japan; while the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union and China were the "Big Four" Allied powers.
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Albania | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Albania 00:03:19 1 Etymology 00:04:36 2 History 00:04:45 2.1 Early history 00:07:51 2.2 Middle Ages 00:10:50 2.2.1 Albania under the Ottoman Empire 00:14:12 2.3 National Renaissance 00:16:46 2.3.1 Independence 00:19:35 2.4 First Republic 00:23:38 2.5 Communism 00:26:41 2.6 Fourth Republic 00:28:47 2.7 Contemporary 00:30:50 3 Geography 00:33:32 3.1 Climate 00:36:08 3.2 Biodiversity 00:38:46 4 Administrative divisions 00:40:44 5 Politics 00:40:53 5.1 Government 00:42:49 5.2 Foreign relations 00:45:21 5.3 Military 00:47:23 6 Economy 00:49:51 6.1 Primary sector 00:51:53 6.2 Secondary sector 00:53:24 6.3 Tertiary sector 00:56:13 6.4 Transport 00:58:31 7 Infrastructure 00:58:40 7.1 Education 01:00:29 7.2 Energy 01:02:21 7.3 Technology and media 01:04:16 7.4 Health 01:06:00 8 Demography 01:08:47 8.1 Minorities 01:12:45 8.2 Language 01:16:03 8.3 Religion 01:21:19 9 Culture 01:21:28 9.1 Symbols 01:23:16 9.2 Cuisine 01:26:57 9.3 Architecture 01:29:32 9.4 Music 01:31:45 9.5 Arts 01:33:38 9.6 Literature 01:37:34 9.7 Cinema 01:40:11 9.8 Sports 01:43:01 9.9 Diaspora 01:44:05 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Albania ( (listen) a(w)l-BAY-nee-ə; Albanian: Shqipëri or Shqipëria; Gheg Albanian: Shqipni or Shqipnia also Shqypni or Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë, pronounced [ɾɛpuˈblika ɛ ʃcipəˈɾiːsə]), is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea. It is bounded by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast. Geographically, the country displays varied climatic, geological, hydrological and morphological conditions, defined in an area of 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi). It possesses remarkable diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps as well as the Korab, Skanderbeg, Pindus and Ceraunian Mountains to the hot and sunny coasts of the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Sea along the Mediterranean Sea. Historically, the area of Albania was populated by various Illyrian, Thracian and Ancient Greek tribes as well as several Greek colonies established in the Illyrian coast. The area was annexed in the 3rd century by Romans and became an integral part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Illyricum. The autonomous Principality of Arbër emerged in 1190, established by archon Progon in the Krujë, within the Byzantine Empire. In the late thirteenth century, Charles of Anjou conquered Albanian territories from the Byzantines and established the medieval Kingdom of Albania, which at its maximal extension was extending from Durrës along the coast to Butrint in the south. In the mid-fifteenth century, it was conquered by the Ottomans. The modern nation state of Albania emerged in 1912 following the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars. The modern Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, a Communist state titled the People's Socialist Republic of Albania was founded under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour. The country experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the fourth Republic of Albania was established. Politically, the country is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the tertiary sector followed by the secondary and primary sector. It went through a process of transition, following the end of communism in 1990, from a centralized to a market-based economy. It also provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.The country is a mem ...
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Iranian Revolution | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Iranian Revolution Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Iranian Revolution (Persian: انقلاب ایران‎, translit. Enqelāb-e Irān; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution) was a series of events involving the overthrow of the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States, and eventual replacement with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution, supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements. Demonstrations against the Shah commenced in October 1977, developing into a campaign of civil resistance that included both secular and religious elements and which intensified in January 1978. Between August and December 1978, strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country. The Shah left Iran for exile on 16 January 1979, as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and Shapour Bakhtiar who was an opposition-based prime minister. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government, and returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians. The royal reign collapsed shortly after on 11 February when guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting, bringing Khomeini to official power. Iran voted by national referendum to become an Islamic republic on 1 April 1979 and to formulate and approve a new theocratic-republican constitution whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country in December 1979. The revolution was unusual for the surprise it created throughout the world: it lacked many of the customary causes of revolution (defeat at war, a financial crisis, peasant rebellion, or disgruntled military), occurred in a nation that was experiencing relative prosperity, produced profound change at great speed, was massively popular, resulted in the exile of many Iranians, and replaced a pro-Western authoritarian monarchy with an anti-Western authoritarian theocracy based on the concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (or velayat-e faqih). It was a relatively non-violent revolution, and it helped to redefine the meaning and practice of modern revolutions (although there was violence in its aftermath).
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Separation of church and state | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:14:26
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Separation of church and state Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state. Conceptually, the term refers to the creation of a secular state (with or without legally explicit church–state separation) and to disestablishment, the changing of an existing, formal relationship between the church and the state.In a society, the degree of political separation between the church and the civil state is determined by the legal structures and prevalent legal views that define the proper relationship between organized religion and the state. The arm's length principle proposes a relationship wherein the two political entities interact as organizations independent of the authority of the other. The strict application of secular principle of laïcité (secularity) is used in France, while secular societies, such as Denmark and the United Kingdom, maintain a form of constitutional recognition of an official state religion.The philosophy of the separation of the church from the civil state parallels the philosophies of secularism, disestablishmentarianism, religious liberty, and religious pluralism, by way of which the European states assumed some of the social roles of the church, the welfare state, a social shift that produced a culturally secular population and public sphere. In practice, church–state separation varies from total separation, mandated by the country's political constitution, as in India and Singapore, to a state religion, as in the Maldives.
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Sharia | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Sharia Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Sharia (), Sharia law, or Islamic law (Arabic: شريعة‎ [ʃaˈriːʕa]) is a religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition. It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to Allah's immutable divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its human scholarly interpretations. It has been described as "one of the major intellectual achievements of Islam" and its importance in Islam has been compared to that of theology. The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim traditionalists and reformists.Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of sharia: the Quran, sunnah (authentic hadith), qiyas (analogical reasoning), and ijma (juridical consensus). Different legal schools—of which the most prominent are Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari—developed methodologies for deriving sharia rulings from scriptural sources using a process known as ijtihad. Traditional jurisprudence distinguishes two principal branches of law, ʿibādāt (rituals) and muʿāmalāt (social relations), which together comprise a wide range of topics. Its rulings assign actions to one of five categories: mandatory, recommended, neutral, abhorred, and prohibited. Thus, some areas of sharia overlap with the Western notion of law while others correspond more broadly to living life in accordance with God’s will.Historically, sharia was interpreted by independent jurists (muftis). Their legal opinions (fatwas) were taken into account by ruler-appointed judges who presided over qāḍī's courts, and by maẓālim courts, which were controlled by the ruler's council and administered criminal law. Ottoman rulers achieved additional control over the legal system by promulgating their own legal code (qanun) and turning muftis into state employees. Non-Muslim (dhimmi) communities had legal autonomy, except in cases of interconfessional disputes, which fell under jurisdiction of qadi's courts.In the modern era, sharia-based criminal laws have been widely replaced by statutes inspired by European models. Judicial procedures and legal education in the Muslim world were likewise brought in line with European practice. While the constitutions of most Muslim-majority states contain references to sharia, its classical rules were largely retained only in personal status (family) laws. Legislative bodies which codified these laws sought to modernize them without abandoning their foundations in traditional jurisprudence. The Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for full implementation of sharia, including reinstatement of hudud corporal punishments, such as stoning. In some cases, this resulted in traditionalist legal reform, while other countries witnessed juridical reinterpretation of sharia advocated by progressive reformers.The role of sharia has become a contested topic around the world. Attempts to impose it on non-Muslims have caused intercommunal violence in Nigeria and may have contributed to the breakup of Sudan. Some Muslim-minority countries in Asia (such as Israel), Africa, and Europe recognize the use of sharia-based family laws for their Muslim populations. Some jurisdictions in North America have passed bans on use of sharia, framed as restrictions on religious or foreign laws. There are ongoing debates as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and women's rights.
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Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Armenia ( (listen); Armenian: Հայաստան, translit. Hayastan, IPA: [hɑjɑsˈtɑn]; Russian: Армения; Armeniya), officially the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Armenian SSR; Armenian: Հայկական Սովետական Սոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն, translit. Haykakan Sovetakan Soc'ialistakan Hanrapetut'yun; Russian: Армянская Советская Социалистическая Республика, translit. Armyanskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also commonly referred to as Soviet Armenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922 located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. It was established in December 1920, when the Soviets took over control of the short-lived First Republic of Armenia and lasted until 1991. It is sometimes called the Second Republic of Armenia, following the First Republic of Armenia's demise. As part of the Soviet Union, the Armenian SSR transformed from a largely agricultural hinterland to an important industrial production center, while its population almost quadrupled from around 880,000 in 1926 to 3.3 million in 1989 due to natural growth and large-scale influx of Armenian Genocide survivors and their descendants. On August 23, 1990, it was renamed the Republic of Armenia after its sovereignty was declared, but remained in the Soviet Union until its official proclamation of independence on 21 September 1991. Its independence was recognized on 26 December 1991 when the Soviet Union ceased to exist. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the state of the post-Soviet Republic of Armenia existed until the adoption of the new constitution in 1995.
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Women in science | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Women in science 00:02:01 1 History 00:02:10 1.1 Cross-cultural perspectives 00:04:00 1.2 Ancient history 00:07:24 1.3 Medieval Europe 00:10:59 1.4 Scientific Revolution (sixteenth and seventeenth centuries) 00:14:49 1.5 Eighteenth century 00:24:07 1.6 Early nineteenth century 00:26:31 1.7 Late 19th century in western Europe 00:29:54 1.8 Late nineteenth century Russians 00:31:43 1.9 Late nineteenth century in the United States 00:33:01 1.10 Early twentieth century 00:33:10 1.10.1 Europe before World War II 00:37:05 1.10.2 United States before World War II 00:44:09 1.11 Later 20th century 00:46:06 1.11.1 Europe after World War II 00:49:52 1.11.2 United States after World War II 00:55:41 1.11.3 Australia after World War II 00:56:54 1.11.4 Israel after World War II 00:57:25 2 Nobel laureates 00:58:05 2.1 Chemistry 00:58:27 2.2 Physics 00:58:45 2.3 Physiology or Medicine 00:59:33 3 Fields Medal 00:59:54 4 Statistics 01:00:14 4.1 Situation in the 1990s 01:05:49 4.2 Overview of situation in 2013 01:06:43 4.2.1 Women in decision-making 01:08:32 4.2.2 Women in life sciences 01:10:48 4.2.3 Women in engineering and related fields 01:16:05 4.3 Regional trends as of 2013 01:17:31 4.3.1 Latin America and the Caribbean 01:20:11 4.3.2 Eastern Europe, West and Central Asia 01:22:17 4.3.3 Southeast Europe 01:23:24 4.3.4 European Union 01:26:10 4.3.5 Australia, New Zealand and USA 01:27:25 4.3.6 South Asia 01:29:28 4.3.7 Southeast Asia 01:32:47 4.3.8 Arab States 01:35:57 4.3.9 Sub-Saharan Africa 01:38:10 5 Lack of agency and representation of women in science 01:38:22 5.1 Social pressures that repress femininity 01:42:57 5.2 Underrepresentation of queer women in STEM fields 01:46:00 6 Reasons to why women are disadvantaged in science 01:49:49 7 Contemporary advocacy and developments of women in science 01:50:01 7.1 Efforts to increase participation 01:52:33 7.1.1 Women scientists in the media 01:53:10 7.2 Notable controversies and developments 01:57:31 7.2.1 Problematic public statements Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Women have made significant contributions to science from the earliest times. Historians with an interest in gender and science have illuminated the scientific endeavors and accomplishments of women, the barriers they have faced, and the strategies implemented to have their work peer-reviewed and accepted in major scientific journals and other publications. The historical, critical and sociological study of these issues has become an academic discipline in its own right. The involvement of women in the field of medicine occurred in several early civilizations, and the study of natural philosophy in ancient Greece was open to women. Women contributed to the proto-science of alchemy in the first or second centuries AD. During the Middle Ages, convents were an important place of education for women, and some of these communities provided opportunities for women to contribute to scholarly research. While the eleventh century saw the emergence of the first universities, women were, for the most part, excluded from university education. The attitude to educating women in medical fields in Italy appears to have been more liberal than in other places. The first known woman to earn a university chair in a scientific field of studies, was eighteenth-century Italian scientist, Laura Bassi. Although gender roles were largely defined in the eighteenth century, women experienced great advances in science. During the nineteenth century, women were excluded from most formal scientific education, but they began to be admitted into learned societies during this period. In the later nineteenth century, the rise of the women's college provided jobs for women scientists and opportunities for education. Marie Curie, the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize in 1903 (physics), went on to become a double Nobel Prize recipient in 1911 (chemistry), both for her work on radiation. Forty women have been awarded the Nobel Prize between ...
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World Bank Group
 
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The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to poor countries. It is the largest and most famous development bank in the world and is an observer at the United Nations Development Group. The bank is based in Washington, D.C. and provided around $30 billion in loans and assistance to "developing" and transition countries in 2012. The bank's stated mission is to reduce poverty. The World Bank's (the IBRD and IDA's) activities are focused on developing countries, in fields such as human development (e.g. education, health), agriculture and rural development (e.g. irrigation and rural services), environmental protection (e.g. pollution reduction, establishing and enforcing regulations), infrastructure (e.g. roads, urban regeneration, and electricity), large industrial construction projects, and governance (e.g. anti-corruption, legal institutions development). The IBRD and IDA provide loans at preferential rates to member countries, as well as grants to the poorest countries. Loans or grants for specific projects are often linked to wider policy changes in the sector or the country's economy as a whole. For example, a loan to improve coastal environmental management may be linked to development of new environmental institutions at national and local levels and the implementation of new regulations to limit pollution, or not, such as in the World Bank financed constructions of paper mills along the Rio Uruguay in 2006. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 782 Audiopedia
Joseph Stalin | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Joseph Stalin Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Joseph Stalin (born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian ethnicity. He ruled the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1952 and the nation's Premier from 1941 to 1953. Initially presiding over an oligarchic one-party system that governed by plurality, he became the de facto dictator of the Soviet Union by the 1930s. Ideologically committed to the Leninist interpretation of Marxism, Stalin helped to formalise these ideas as Marxism–Leninism, while his own policies became known as Stalinism. Born to a poor family in Gori, Russian Empire (now Georgia), Stalin began his revolutionary career by joining the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party as a youth. He edited the party's newspaper, Pravda, and raised funds for Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction via robberies, kidnappings, and protection rackets. Repeatedly arrested, he underwent several internal exiles. After the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia during the 1917 October Revolution, Stalin joined the party's governing Politburo, where he was instrumental in overseeing the Soviet Union's establishment in 1922. As Lenin fell ill and then died in 1924, Stalin assumed leadership over the country. During Stalin's rule, "Socialism in One Country" became a central tenet of the party's dogma, and Lenin's New Economic Policy was replaced with a centralized command economy. Under the Five-Year Plan system, the country underwent collectivisation and rapid industrialization but experienced significant disruptions in food production that contributed to the famine of 1932–33. To eradicate those regarded as "enemies of the working class", Stalin instituted the "Great Purge", in which over a million were imprisoned and at least 700,000 executed between 1934 and 1939. Stalin's government promoted Marxism–Leninism abroad through the Communist International and supported anti-fascist movements throughout Europe during the 1930s, particularly in the Spanish Civil War. In 1939, it signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, resulting in their joint invasion of Poland. Germany ended the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941. Despite initial setbacks, the Soviet Red Army repelled the German incursion and captured Berlin in 1945, ending World War II in Europe. The Soviets annexed the Baltic states and helped establish Soviet-aligned governments throughout Central and Eastern Europe, China and North Korea. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged from the war as the two world superpowers. Tensions arose between the Soviet-backed Eastern Bloc and U.S.-backed Western Bloc which became known as the Cold War. Stalin led his country through its post-war reconstruction, during which it developed a nuclear weapon in 1949. In these years, the country experienced another major famine and an anti-semitic campaign peaking in the Doctors' plot. Stalin died in 1953 and was eventually succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who denounced his predecessor and initiated a de-Stalinisation process throughout Soviet society. Widely considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Stalin was the subject of a pervasive personality cult within the international Marxist–Leninist movement, for whom Stalin was a champion of socialism and the working class. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Stalin has retained popularity in Russia and Georgia as a victorious wartime leader who established the Soviet Union as a major world power. Conversely, his totalitarian government has been widely condemned for overseeing mass repressions, ethnic cleansing, hundreds of thousands of executions, and famines which caused the deaths of millions.
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Anti-clericalism | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-clericalism 00:01:05 1 Europe 00:01:13 1.1 France 00:01:22 1.1.1 Revolution 00:04:42 1.1.2 Third Republic 00:07:20 1.2 Austria (Holy Roman Empire) 00:08:37 1.3 Germany 00:10:55 1.4 Italy 00:13:34 1.5 Poland 00:13:57 1.6 Portugal 00:15:19 1.7 Spain 00:16:17 1.7.1 Second Republic and Civil War (1931-1939) 00:19:37 2 Canada 00:22:38 3 United States 00:23:10 4 Latin America 00:25:17 4.1 Mexico 00:25:37 4.1.1 Reform War 00:26:04 4.1.2 Cristero War 00:28:38 4.2 Ecuador 00:29:14 4.3 Colombia 00:30:42 4.4 Argentina 00:32:34 4.5 Venezuela 00:33:07 4.6 Cuba 00:33:41 5 Communism 00:34:03 6 Anticlericalism in the Islamic world 00:34:14 6.1 Azerbaijan 00:34:25 6.2 Turkey 00:34:35 6.3 Indonesia 00:35:03 6.4 Iran 00:37:05 7 Certain branches of Freemasonry 00:37:30 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8417344444389624 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Anti-clericalism is opposition to religious authority, typically in social or political matters. Historical anti-clericalism has mainly been opposed to the influence of Roman Catholicism. Anti-clericalism is related to secularism, which seeks to remove the church from all aspects of public and political life, and its involvement in the everyday life of the citizen.Some have opposed clergy on the basis of moral corruption, institutional issues and/or disagreements in religious interpretation, such as during the Protestant Reformation. Anti-clericalism became extremely violent during the French Revolution because revolutionaries believed the church had played a pivotal role in the systems of oppression which led to it. Many clerics were killed, and French revolutionary governments tried to control priests by making them state employees. Anti-clericalism appeared in Catholic Europe throughout the 19th century, in various forms, and later in Canada, Cuba, and Latin America.
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Cold War | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Cold War Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states (the Eastern Bloc), and the United States with its allies (the Western Bloc) after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins with 1946, the year U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U.S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, and ending between the Revolutions of 1989 and the 1991 collapse of the USSR, which ended communism in Eastern Europe. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional wars known as proxy wars. The Cold War split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the Soviet Union and the United States as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The USSR was a Marxist–Leninist state led by its Communist Party, which in turn was dominated by a leader with different titles over time, and a small committee called the Politburo. The Party controlled the state, the press, the military, the economy and many organizations throughout the Second World, including the Warsaw Pact and other satellites, and funded Communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with Communist China, particularly following the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. In opposition stood the capitalist West, led by the United States, a federal republic with a two-party presidential system. The First World nations of the Western Bloc were generally liberal democratic with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of banana republics and other authoritarian regimes throughout the Third World, most of which were the Western Bloc's former colonies. Some major Cold War frontlines such as Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Congo were still Western colonies in 1947. A neutral bloc arose with the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought good relations with both sides. The two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat, but they were heavily armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war. Each side had a nuclear strategy that discouraged an attack by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would lead to the total destruction of the attacker—the doctrine of mutually assured destruction (MAD). Aside from the development of the two sides’ nuclear arsenals, and their deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, psychological warfare, massive propaganda campaigns and espionage, far-reaching embargos, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race. The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe (for example, supporting the anti-communist side in the Greek Civil War) and creating the NATO alliance. The Berlin Blockade (1948–49) was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the Communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War (1950–53), the conflict expanded. The USSR and the USA competed for influence in Latin America and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. The Soviets suppressed the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. The expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis (1956), the Berlin Crisis of 1961, and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, which was perhaps the closest the two sides came to nuclear war. Meanwhile, an international peace movement took root and grew among citizens around the world, first in Japan from 1954, when people became concerned abo ...
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Gulag | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Gulag Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Gulag (, UK also ; Russian: ГУЛаг [ɡʊˈlak] (listen), acronym of Main Administration of Camps) was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s. The term is also commonly used in the English language to refer to any forced-labor camp in the Soviet Union, including camps which existed in post-Stalin times. The camps housed a wide range of convicts, from petty criminals to political prisoners. Large numbers were convicted by simplified procedures, such as NKVD troikas and other instruments of extrajudicial punishment. The Gulag is recognized as a major instrument of political repression in the Soviet Union. The agency was first administered by the GPU, later by the NKVD and in the final years by the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD). The Solovki prison camp, the first corrective labor camp constructed after the revolution, was established in 1918 and legalized by a decree "On the creation of the forced-labor camps" on April 15, 1919. The internment system grew rapidly, reaching a population of 100,000 in the 1920s. According to Nicolas Werth, author of The Black Book of Communism, the yearly mortality rate in the Soviet concentration camps strongly varied reaching 5% (1933) and 20% (1942–1943) while dropping considerably in the post-war years at about 1–3% per year at the beginning of the 1950s. The emergent consensus among scholars who utilize official archival data is that of the 18 million who were sent to the Gulag from 1930 to 1953, roughly 1.5 to 1.7 million perished there or as a result of their detention. However, some historians who question the reliability of such data and instead rely heavily on literary sources come to higher estimations. Archival researchers have found "no plan of destruction" of the gulag population and no statement of official intent to kill them, and prisoner releases vastly exceeded the number of deaths in the Gulag.Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature, who survived eight years of Gulag incarceration, gave the term its international repute with the publication of The Gulag Archipelago in 1973. The author likened the scattered camps to "a chain of islands" and as an eyewitness he described the Gulag as a system where people were worked to death. Some scholars support this view, though this claim is controversial, given that the vast majority of people who entered the Gulag came out alive, with the exception of the war years. Although one writer, citing pre-1991 materials, claims that most prisoners in the gulag were killed, Natalya Reshetovskaya, the wife of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, said in her memoirs that The Gulag Archipelago was based on "campfire folklore" as opposed to objective facts. Similarly, historian Stephen G. Wheatcroft asserts that it is essentially a "literary and political work". Numerous other accounts from survivors state otherwise and the Mitrokhin Archive claimed that Mrs. Solzhenitsyn's memoirs were part of a KGB campaign, orchestrated by Yuri Andropov in 1974, to discredit Solzhenitsyn. However, this archive itself has its veracity in doubt; among other, more practical issues, by the same token with which Vasili Mitrokhin claimed the Soviet government would obviously be interested in discrediting Solzhenitsyn, Western governments would have as much interest in lending him credence. In March 1940, there were 53 Gulag camp directorates (colloquially referred to as simply "camps") and 423 labor colonies in the Soviet Union. Today's major industrial cities of the Russian Arctic, such as Norilsk, Vorkuta and Magadan, were originally camps built by prisoners and run by ex-prisoners.
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Russia | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia 00:06:32 1 Etymology 00:08:41 2 History 00:08:51 2.1 Early history 00:10:56 2.2 Kievan Rus' 00:14:52 2.3 Grand Duchy of Moscow 00:17:32 2.4 Tsardom of Russia 00:22:40 2.5 Imperial Russia 00:29:11 2.6 February Revolution and Russian Republic 00:31:01 2.7 Soviet Russia and civil war 00:32:50 2.8 Soviet Union 00:37:29 2.8.1 World War II 00:41:28 2.8.2 Cold War 00:46:28 2.9 Russian Federation 00:52:03 3 Politics 00:52:13 3.1 Governance 00:54:43 3.2 Foreign relations 01:00:35 3.3 Military 01:04:04 3.4 Political divisions 01:07:27 4 Geography 01:08:51 4.1 Topography 01:13:30 4.2 Climate 01:16:04 4.3 Biodiversity 01:17:30 5 Economy 01:26:22 5.1 Corruption 01:29:29 5.2 Agriculture 01:32:05 5.3 Energy 01:35:09 5.4 Transport 01:40:52 5.5 Science and technology 01:48:14 5.6 Space exploration 01:50:29 5.7 Water supply and sanitation 01:51:21 6 Demographics 01:57:01 6.1 Largest cities 01:57:11 6.2 Ethnic groups 01:57:41 6.3 Language 01:59:20 6.4 Religion 02:11:26 6.5 Health 02:13:42 6.6 Education 02:15:56 7 Culture 02:16:06 7.1 Folk culture and cuisine 02:20:06 7.2 Architecture 02:24:14 7.3 Visual arts 02:27:49 7.4 Music and dance 02:31:04 7.5 Literature and philosophy 02:35:14 7.6 Cinema, animation and media 02:39:41 7.7 Sports 02:47:57 7.8 National holidays and symbols 02:52:37 7.9 Tourism 02:56:04 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7925987386990176 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Russia (Russian: Росси́я, tr. Rossiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijə]), officially the Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə]), is a country in Eurasia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 144.5 million people as of 2018, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is the largest metropolitan area in Europe proper and one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on th ...
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