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"BAKU NAR RESIDENCE". Structural scheme of the foundation
 
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The residential complex “Baku Nar Residence” is being built near the intersection of Azadlig Avenue and Z. Bunyatov (formerly Marx Square). Location LCD has a fully developed infrastructure. So, next to the LCD located "Lyceum Idrak", "World School", park them. Heydar Aliyev, supermarket “Bizim Market”, as well as many other vital facilities necessary in the daily lives of residents. Distinctive advantages of the complex: The main advantage - In accordance with the decree of the Executive Committee of the Binagadi district of Baku No. 174, the construction of a residential complex has been launched at S. Bakhlulzade Street 2,4,6,6А. Our construction rights are secured by the registration of a residential complex by the Baku District Office of the State Registered Real Estate Service under the State Committee on Property Issues of the Republic of Azerbaijan. This allows each owner, who has fully paid the cost of the purchased apartment, at any time, even during the initial construction work, to register the property rights to this housing, and immediately upon commissioning the complex for housing, to receive a bill of sale !!! 1. The territory with a developed infrastructure; 2. The proximity of the metro stations "Azadlig" and "Ganjlik"; 3. Stops numerous bus routes; 4. Located near several schools and kindergartens; 5. Medical institutions; 6. Numerous sports, shopping and catering facilities; 7. Close proximity to parks and entertainment centers; 8. Close proximity to future metro stations, S. Bakhlulzade and S. Vurgun. In this complex, consisting of 4 blocks of 18 floors, you are offered 1,2,3 and 4-room apartments with a free layout. The total number of apartments - 255. The complex will provide: 1. Landscaped landscape 2. Playgrounds 3. Kindergarten 4. Entrance doors with modern design 5. Sensor lighting in blocks 6. Electric generator 7. External lighting 8. Freight and passenger elevators 9. 2 storey underground parking for 160 cars 10. The concept of flat-park place 11. Water supply, 24/7 12. Gas supply, 24/7 13. Electricity 24/7 14. Central heating and hot water 15. Security service, 24/7 16. Video surveillance, 24/7 17. Office 18. Restaurant Residential Complex “Baku Nar Residence” will be located in one of the most comfortable and green corners of Baku. Construction will be carried out according to new quality standards based on the necessary housing concept. Domestic loan Loan term - 24 months; Down payment - 50%; Cash - special price. Information about the conditions of sale and prices can be obtained at the sales office. Contacts: (012) 563-16-21 (050) 218-18-45 (070) 218-18-45 Opening hours: 09: 00-17: 00 E-mail: [email protected] http://mahal.az/ https://www.facebook.com/mahal.construction/ https://www.facebook.com/panorama.bayil/ https://www.facebook.com/baku.nar.residence/ https://www.facebook.com/chinar.complex/
SUPREME COURT DOESN'T JUSTIFY HOPE OF RESIDENT FROM SHAMKIR
 
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Sahib Karimov, a resident of Shamkir who claims that his house was seized and converted into a wedding palace, will request the president of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev to provide him with a new house. "If my request is not fulfilled, I will have to ask for foreign states to grant me asylum"- said Sahib Karimov during a press conference at IRFS on Tuesday. n 1997, he bought house located at 246 Samad Vurgun Street. He later left his home together with his family to work in Russia. After returning back to his house in Shamkir, he saw that Morul wedding palace had replaced his house. The citizen appealed to Shamkir Regional Court and the State Committee for Property Issues, claiming that his house was destroyed illegally. In its answer to Karimov, the Committee for Property Issues reported that a non-residential property is being built where his house used to be. Karimov submitted receipts for utility payments, the deed of sale, and all the notarized documents to the organizations to which he appealed, but he didn't get anywhere. On December 29th 2010, Shamkir Regional Court ruled that no house existed at the address of 246Samad Vurgun Street. The Ganja Appeals Court upheld the original decision and on December 2,2011 Judge Ali Rustamov from the Supreme Court did not grant Kerimov's cassation appeal. Karimov claims that his damages amounted to150 thousand manats. According to unverified information, an influential minister is behind the building of this wedding place at this location. Karimov, his wife and child must now move in with his relatives "I will appeal to the European Court of Human Rights regarding this issue. However, it will take several years for consideration of the case. We did not know how we will live," said Sahib Karimov.
Views: 79 Obyektiv Tv
78th session of Housing and Land Management (Ministerial Meeting) UNECE, Geneva, 9 Nov 2017
 
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Azerbaijani Delegation led by Karam Hasanov (Chairman of State Property Issues Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan) attends the 78th session of the Committee on Housing and Land Management, Geneva, 9 November 2017
Ilham Aliyev and Mehriban Aliyeva at the International Real Estate and Investment Exhibition
 
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The 2nd Azerbaijan International Real Estate and Investment Exhibition is held at the Baku Expo Centre. On November 23, President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev and Mrs Mehriban Aliyeva familiarized themselves with the exhibition. Held with the organizational support of the State Committee for Property Issues, “Elan Expo” and “Atılım Fuarcılık” Companies, the 2nd International Real Estate and Investment Exhibition presents some 100 brand construction projects from Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Georgia, Cyprus, Ukraine, Spain, Russia, Portugal, Hungary, and Luxembourg, along with Azerbaijan.
Anti-censorship demonstrations in protest at copywright treaty
 
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(11 Feb 2012) SHOTLIST Sofia, Bulgaria 1. Protesters shouting (Bulgarian) "No to ACTA" (Anti Counterfeiting Trade Agreement) 2. Protesters jumping and shouting (Bulgarian) "If you're not jumping you are for ACTA" 3. Mid of banner reading (English) "ACTA = 1984" 4. Mid of poster showing internet user in jail 5. Protesters jumping 6. Protesters dragging a computer monitor through the streets Prague, Czech Republic 7. Man chanting "Stop ACTA" 8. Man addressing crowd 9. Close of woman wearing face mask that says "Stop ACTA" on it 10. Mid tilt down of sign reading (English) "Down With Acta!" to man wearing Guy Fawkes mask 11. Pan of crowd 12. SOUNDBITE (English) Jan Hulek, protester: "The main issue why I am here is because ACTA was accepted without people knowing it. We didn't know ACTA was going on and there should be discussion before we accepted it. There wasn't." Paris, France 13. Pan of Bastille square 14. Various of protesters 15. Frederic Navarro, President of Act Up, Paris, addressing crowd 16. SOUNDBITE (French) Frederic Navarro, President of Act Up, Paris: "Eighty percent of Africans who have AIDS are treated with generic medicines made in India. If this agreement (ACTA) is signed, they won't have any access to generic medicines and will die while the pharmaceutical laboratories are making profits on our lives." 17. Various of protesters walking in the streets of Paris next to Bastille square Berlin, Germany 18. Pan from"Stop Acta" sign to demonstrators in front of Berlin City Hall 19. Various of protesters with placards bearing anti-ACTA slogans and taped up mouths Vienna, Austria 20. Wide of crowd in front of parliament 21. Mid of sign reading (English) "ACTA WTF? LOL" with parliament in background 22. Mid of speaker with crowd in background 23. Mid of crowd with masks 24. SOUNDBITE (German) Thomas Lohninger, protester: "The bad thing about ACTA is the totally undemocratic approach. It can't be that a law is passed in such a way, especially if it affects our internet freedoms so significantly. It must be stopped." 25. Various of protesters 26. Mid of placard reading (English) "STOP ACTA. The worst thing about censorship is.... (words are blacked out)" STORYLINE Protesters took to the freezing cold streets of several European cities on Saturday to voice anger at an international copyright treaty they fear will lead to a blocking of content on the Internet. Poland, France, and Italy are among European nations that recently signed the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement, or ACTA, but ratification remains in question in many countries as contempt builds against it, mostly from young people. The United States, Japan, South Korea and others say ACTA is needed to harmonise international standards to protect the rights of those who produce music, movies, pharmaceuticals, fashion, and a range of other products that often fall victim to piracy and intellectual property theft. Strong opposition to the treaty suddenly emerged in Poland last month and is now spreading across Europe, where protests are taking place in many cities. Critics say they fear it will lead to online censorship and overly harsh punishments for those who use copyrighted material. More than 4,000 Bulgarians marched in Sofia, many wearing the Guy Fawkes mask, made famous in the film V for Vendetta. which has become the symbol of the global protest against ACTA. Some of the Bulgarian protesters unfurled a banner reading "ACTA = 1984", a reference to the dystopian novel by George Orwell which depicts a society ruled by a dictatorship which carries out constant government surveillance. There were similar scenes in Paris where more than 1,000 protesters took to Bastille square. You can license this story through AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/metadata/youtube/bb2dad09c84b7ba6b38cc2c065b67ea9 Find out more about AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/HowWeWork
Views: 40 AP Archive
History of the Kurdish people
 
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The Kurds are an ethnic Iranian group who have historically inhabited the mountainous areas to the south of Caucasus (Northern Zagros and Eastern Taurus mountain ranges), a geographical area collectively referred to as Kurdistan. Most Kurds speak an Indo-European language belonging to the Northwestern Iranian branch. There are various hypotheses as to predecessor populations of the Kurds, such as the Carduchoi of Classical Antiquity. The earliest known Kurdish dynasties under Islamic rule (10th to 12th centuries) are the Hasanwayhids, the Marwanids, the Shaddadids, followed by the Ayyubid dynasty founded by Saladin. The Battle of Chaldiran of 1514 is an important turning point in Kurdish history, marking the alliance of Kurds with the Ottomans. The Sharafnameh of 1597 is the first account of Kurdish history. Kurdish history in the 20th century is marked by a rising sense of Kurdish nationhood focused on the goal of an independent Kurdistan as scheduled by the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920. Partial autonomy was reached by Kurdistan Uyezd (1923–1926) and by Iraqi Kurdistan (since 1991), while notably in Turkish Kurdistan, an armed conflict between the PKK and Turkish Armed Forces was ongoing from 1984 to 1999, and the region continues to be unstable with renewed violence flaring up in the 2000s. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 14631 Audiopedia
ARMENIAN NEWS: BREAKING NEWS 15.03.2018
 
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https://news.am/eng/news/441109.html President of the Republic of Artsakh Bako Sahakyan, on Wednesday visited the US Congress. He met with a group of members of the foreign affairs committee, and discussed Artsakh-US relations, avenues for the settlement of the Azerbaijani-Karabakh conflict, and regional trends. The NKR President accentuated Washington’s considerable contribution to maintaining peace and stability in the region and in seeking a pacific and equitable solution to the Azerbaijani-Karabakh conflict. https://news.am/eng/news/441190.html A street in Istanbul will be renamed after slain Istanbul Armenian journalist Hrant Dink. According to the respective decision, Samanyolu Street in Sisli district will renamed to Hrant Dink Street. Şişli District Council has forwarded this decision to Istanbul Municipal Council, after whose approval the decision will come into force. https://news.am/eng/news/441189.html American actor and producer Dean Cain said he hopes Israel will recognize the Armenian Genocide. During his visit to Israel, Cain spoke to The Jerusalem Post and voiced the importance of recognizing this tragedy. Cain noted that although he would not tell a foreign country what to do, he hopes every government would recognize Armenian Genocide, because “it’s a historic fact.” https://news.am/eng/news/441141.html Foreign Minister of Armenia Edward Nalbandian is holding meetings in Copenhagen. On Wednesday he met with tax minister Karsten Lauritzen of Denmark to discuss development of trade and economic ties. The ministers signed the convention between Armenia and Denmark on the relief for double taxation of income and property, and on the prevention of tax evasion. Edward Nalbandian also met with Michael Starbæk Christensen, Permanent Under-Secretary of State of Denmark, responsible for Foreign Affairs. A number of issues related to the development of the Armenian-Danish relations were discussed. http://news.am/eng/news/441016.html UK Prime Minister Theresa May announced a range of economic and diplomatic measures, including the suspension of high-level bilateral contacts with Russia over poisoning of former spy Sergei Skripal. The UK announced Wednesday it will expel 23 Russian diplomats and promised to freeze Russian assets if they were used to threaten British interests. Later in the day UK blocked Russia-proposed statement on the Skripal incident at the meeting of the UN Security Council. Moscow denounced Theresa May's claims as baseless and promised to expel British diplomats in response. https://med.news.am/eng/news/17450/premer-ministr-armenii-poruchil-za-15-dneiy-obespechit-polnoe-vnedrenie-sistemiy-elektronnogo-zdravookhraneniya.html Armenian Prime Minister Karen Karapetyan instructed to ensure full implementation of the e-health system within 15 days. “At this stage, it is necessary to ensure the integration of all health facilities operating under the authority of the city and regional municipalities in the e-health system. The point is that in many places there is no Internet, and it is necessary to solve this problem shortly,” Karapetyan said. https://sport.news.am/eng/news/87216/fifa-armenia-world-ranking-unchanged.html Armenian national squad are still 91st in the new FIFA standings released on Thursday. The squad’s once 30th ranking, however, was a record-breaking high for the country. Reigning world champions Germany still top the FIFA World Ranking, where Brazil and current European champions Portugal are still second and third, respectively.
Views: 562 NewsamChannel
Robert Wintemute on "Israel Palestine - Is it Apartheid, and is Boycott Justified and Legal?
 
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Title: "Israel Palestine - Is it Apartheid, and is boycott justified and legal?" Speaker: Robert Wintemute, King’s College London, UK Date: Sept 20, 2017 url: https://nathanson.osgoode.yorku.ca/events/robert-wintemute-israel-palestine-apartheid-boycott-justified-legal/
Թեղուտ՝ 10 տարի անց․ դբա լա՞վը | Teghut, 10 Years On
 
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2008-ին մեկնարկեց Թեղուտի հանքի ծրագիրը։ «Վալլեքս» խմբի ներկայացուցիչները խոստանում էին, որ հանքը սոցիալական մեծ օգուտներ է բերելու այս տարածքի բնակիչներին ու երկրին։ Այս տարվա սկզբին հանքն անակնկալ դադարեցրեց գործունեությունը՝ կրճատելով հազարից ավելի աշխատակիցների։ Տասը տարի անց, սակայն, բնակիչներին խոստացված օգուտները չկան, տարածքի գետերը թունավորվել են, անտառը ոչնչացվել է։ ՍիվիլՆեթի ֆիլմը Թեղուտի հանքի շահագործման խոստումների և այսօրվա իրականության մասին է։ - Subscribe to our channel: https://goo.gl/UnKG5U - Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/CivilNetTV - Find us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/CivilNet.TV - Check our website: https://www.civilnet.am/ © Նյութի հեղինակային իրավունքները պատկանում են Սիվիլիթաս հիմնադրամին: ՍիվիլՆեթի խմբագրական քաղաքականության համաձայն` արգելվում է օգտագործել ՍիվիլՆեթի նյութերը առանց պատշաճ հղման, ներբեռնել և այլ օնլայն հարթակից վերբեռնել ՍիվիլՆեթի պատրաստած և տարբերանշանը կրող տեսանյութերը` առանց համապատասխան համաձայնության: © Copyright of this report belongs to the Civilitas Foundation. In accordance with the editorial policy of CivilNet (the media project of the Civilitas Foundation), materials may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, displayed, published or broadcast without the prior consent of CivilNet. You may not alter or remove any trademark, copyright or other notice from copies of the content.
Views: 3786 CivilNet
Holocaust and Genocide Lecture Series - March 13, 2018 - Maral N. Attallah, Ph.D.
 
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Title: Armenian Genocide: Legacies of Survival Speaker: Maral N. Attallah, Ph.D., Distinguished Lecturer, Humboldt State University Armenian Genocide Memorial Lecture Description: The Holocaust & Genocide Lecture Series is supported by the SSU Instructionally Related Activities (IRA) Fund, the Alliance for the Study of the Holocaust and Genocide, the Paul V. Benko Holocaust Education Endowment, the Armenian Genocide Memorial Lecture Fund, the Adele Zygielbaum En, the Thomas Family Foundation, the Center for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide and the Jewish Community Federation (JCF).
Views: 197 CSUSonoma
Sharia in the West? with John Witte, Jr.
 
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John Witte, Jr., Director, Center for the Study of Law and Religion, Emory University, explores a new issue of religious freedom and family law that is now confronting many Western democracies: to what extent may Islamic and other religious communities have the freedom to develop their own internal religious laws to govern the sex, marriage, and family lives of their voluntary faithful. Series: "UC Berkeley Graduate Council Lectures" [7/2011] [Public Affairs] [Show ID: 21039]
Saskia Sassen - Amherst College - Sept. 20, 2018
 
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Saskia Sassen, the Robert S. Lynd Professor of Sociology at Columbia University and a member of its Committee on Global Thought, joined Spanish Professor and host of NPR's In Contrast, Ilan Stavans, for "Globalism and Its Discontents," as part of this year's Point/Counterpoint series. Transcript: https://www.amherst.edu/mm/565375 The rise of populism worldwide today, personified by Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin, is a fierce reaction to globalism policies of the past few decades. Anti-immigration movements in Europe and the United States; assaults on free speech; racial profiling; polarized politics; intolerance for gender, economic and linguistic diversity; the building of walls and the renegotiation of international trade treaties; the tension between rural and urban communities; and the questioning of the basic tenets of pluralism are some of the symptoms. Democracy itself might be at peril. More about the Point/Counterpoint series: https://www.amherst.edu/mm/564883
Views: 482 AmherstCollege
Advancing the Rights of LGBT-Persons in Austria and the EU
 
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On June 26, 2014, the U.S. Embassy Vienna organized a panel discussion on advancing the rights of LGBT persons in Austria and the EU. U.S. Ambassador to the OSCE Daniel Baer gave opening remarks and Counselor for Consular Affairs Timothy Eydelnant led through the program. The speakers were Elfriede Fritz, Harald Troch and Helmut Graupner. This video covers the entire discussion.
Views: 483 USEmbassyVienna
Daily Press Briefing - October 3, 2016
 
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Director of the Office of Press Relations, Elizabeth Trudeau, leads the Daily Press Briefing at the Department of State on October 3, 2016. A full transcript is available at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/dpb/2016/10/
John Dziak: Old Lesson for New Wars: Counterintelligence at the Roots of Provocation and Terror
 
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Dr. Dziak is co-founder and President of Dziak Group, a consulting firm in the fields of intelligence, counterintelligence, and technology transfer. He is a Distinguished Fellow in Intelligence Studies at the American Foreign Policy Council and also is a Senior Fellow at the International Assessment Strategy Center. #Spying #Espionage #Spies
Views: 3425 WestminsterInstitute
Daily Press Briefing: November 5, 2012
 
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U.S. Department of State Spokesperson Victoria Nuland leads the Daily Press Briefing at the U.S. Department of State in Washington, D.C. on November 5, 2012. [Go to http://video.state.gov for more video and text transcript.]
Fresno State Talks - Dr. Sergio La Porta
 
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Who Cares? Genocide, Historical Memory, and Moral Responsibility 2015 marks the centenary of the Armenian Genocide in which approximately 1.5 million Armenians were killed and countless others sent into exile by the Young Turk regime of the Ottoman Empire. This talk will explore how the Armenian Genocide represents a pivotal moment in the making of modernity, and thus constitutes an essential part of who we are as a world civilization today. It will also foreground the challenges the Armenian Genocide, along with other genocides, pose to our post-modern perspective which often views conflict as a series of competing narratives.
Views: 458 Fresno State
History of Armenia & Armenians - by Wiki Article
 
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This is a synthesized speech reading of the Wikipedia article "Armenia" and is intended primarily for blind and visually impaired individuals who can not view Wikipedia. This video can also be used for mobile users who wish to listen to Wikipedia articles on the go, or by those who wish to learn a second language by reading the captions in that language while listening in English. Image source and copyright details: http://wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_o... Original article available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenia
Views: 5236 Khachakirner1992
Indian dancers practice to 'Jai ho' song for International City parade in Andhra Pradesh
 
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Indian dancers practice on 'Jai ho' song for International City Parade during International Fleet Review on Beach Road in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. The Hon’ble President of India being the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, once in his/her term, reviews the Indian Naval (IN) Fleet as part of the ‘President’s Fleet Review’ (PFR). This review aims at assuring the country of the Indian Navy’s preparedness, high morale and discipline. Many leading nations of the world use the opportunity provided by the Fleet Review to enhance mutual trust and confidence with their maritime neighbours and partners by inviting their ships to participate in the review. Normally called ‘International Fleet Review’ (IFR), this event then allows the host nation an occasion to display its maritime capabilities and the ‘bridges of friendship’ and trust it has built with other maritime nations. The last IFR was conducted in January 2001, off Mumbai with participation from 29 countries. This earned the country widespread appreciation and goodwill. A Naval Fleet Review is a long-standing tradition followed by navies all over the world. It is a grand occasion when every operational ship is spruced up, proudly displaying its crest and its company in a spirit of loyalty and allegiance to its sovereign and the state. The idea of a Review was perhaps conceived as a show of naval might or an inspection of readiness for battle at sea. It still has the same connotation, but assembling of warships without any belligerent intentions is now the norm in modern times. Later reviews were used as a celebratory demonstration for victories in battle, for a coronation or on the occasion of the visit of royal guests. On many occasions, ships have sailed across the seas to participate in fleet reviews of friendly nations. While India boasts of a maritime tradition dating back to Vedic times, we do not have any authentic reports of fleet reviews of the past except for a mention of two influential women demanding a fleet review during the supremacy of the Marathas. Source : ifr16.indiannavy.gov.in This footage is part of the professionally-shot broadcast stock footage archive of Wilderness Films India Ltd., the largest collection of HD imagery from South Asia. The collection comprises of 100, 000+ hours of high quality broadcast imagery, mostly shot on HDCAM / SR 1080i High Definition, Alexa, SR, XDCAM and 4K. Write to us for licensing this footage on a broadcast format, for use in your production! We are happy to be commissioned to film for you or else provide you with broadcast crewing and production solutions across South Asia. We pride ourselves in bringing the best of India and South Asia to the world... Please subscribe to our channel wildfilmsindia on Youtube for a steady stream of videos from across India. Also, visit and enjoy your journey across India at www.clipahoy.com , India's first video-based social networking experience! Reach us at rupindang [at] gmail [dot] com and [email protected] To SUBSCRIBE click the below link: www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=WildFilmsIndia Like & Follow Us on: Facebook: www.facebook.com/WildernessFilmsIndiaLimited Website: www.wildfilmsindia.com
Views: 135557 WildFilmsIndia
Historia Ukrainy (z napisami i tłumaczeniem)
 
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o Krymie: 39:43 Kozacy pomogli Rosji wygrać Krym z Turcji 56:55 Donbass 2:16:28 Krym zostaje przeniesiony na Ukrainę o Rosji 12:46 / 31:16 𝐦𝐢𝐬𝐬𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐦𝐢𝐬𝐬𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐩𝐚𝐫𝐭: 1:47:38 NARODZINY NARODU (2008) Jerzy Hoffman 1:34 Kijów (401-500) 2:16 Bizancjum (330-1453) 2:45 Księżniczka Olga (890 - 969) akceptuje chrześcijaństwo 3:28 Chersonese 4:06 Wołodymyr Wielki (958 - 1015) 4:29 Jarosław Mądry (978-1054) 4:39 Katedra Św. Zofii (1100) 5:31 Anna - królowa Francji (1030-1075) 18:41 Vladimir Monomakh (1053-1125) 7:20 Yu Dolgoruky (1099-1157) 7:26 Moskwa 7:37 Mongołowie 10:16 Księstwo Gal-Vol lub Królestwo Rosji 10:49 Lwów Termin MALOROSCIA: początek XIV wieku https://youtu.be/ZC510lQY9zQ?t=30 12:37 Iwan III Grozny (1440-1505) 12:46 Mit o Rosji 13:07 Krym 13:53 Roksolana (1502 - 1558) 15:20 Polskie pańszczyzna 17:14 Zaporizhzhya Sich 18:33 UKR zmienia nazwę RUS 18:40 Kozak 20:15 Brest Union 20:18 Unici - wschodni katolicy Kościoła 21:08 Hetman Sagaidachny (1570 - 1622) 23:05 Prawosławie 23:28 Jestem Vishnevetsky (1612 - 1651) 23:31 Katolicyzm 24:54 B Chmielnicki (1595 - 1657) 30:04 Perejasław Rada 1654 34:39 I Mazepa (1639 - 1709) 37:06 Bitwa pod Połtawą (1709) 40:11 Sycz w Zaporożu (1552-1709) 40:27 Solovki - Rewolucja Franza (1789) 48:18 jest zabronione przez Kościół greckokatolicki 48:49 Uniwersytet Kijowski (1833) 50:55 T. Shevchenko (1814 - 1861) (47 lat) 54:57 niebiesko-żółta flaga 55:45 Bractwo Cyryla i Metodego 56:32 ruch wyzwolenia narodowego 56:55 Krymska wojna (1853-1856) 57:07 Aleksander II (1818 - 1881) znosi poddaństwo 57:26 Donieck (1868) 58:56 "Zielony klin" 59:23 W Antonowiczu (1834 - 1908) 59:28 M Drahomanov (1841-1895) 1:00:42 L Ukrainka (1871 - 1913) (42 lata) 1:02:13 NTSh (1873) 1:11:03 M Grushevsky 1:03:27 I Franco (1856 - 1916) 1:04:22 "Historia Ukr-Rus" 1:04:49 Metropolitan A Sheptytsky (1865 - 1944) świadomość narodowa na emigracji 1:06:31 Pierwsza wojna światowa z 1914 roku 1:07:32 Dontsov (1883 - 1973) 1:07:57 (1914) Rosyjska okupacja 1:11:24 Z Petliurą https://youtu.be/axdY3GH-qYE 1:11:24 Zah-ukr Nara Response ZUNR 1:19:27 Ukr Galicyjska Armia 1:30:48 Ros. głód (1921) 1:41:21 HOLODOMOR (1932-1933) 11 000 000 ofiar 1:45:55 (1937-1938) zostały wykonane aresztowania - Gułag 1:46:54 niszczenie ukr ident 1:49:11 Ukr Sojusz Narodów Demokratycznych (UNDO) 1:42:20 Strzelec "Ukr Sich" 1:50:49 (UFO) Ukr Army Org (Praga) Istnieją Konovalety 1:51:19 D Dontsov - ideolog z ukr. nacjonalizm 1:52:00 (młodzież) UWO jest członkiem -: Org Ukr Nat (OUN) 1:52:52 (w Polsce w 1933 r.) Wraz z Banderą zostaje szefem OUN 1:55:03 I Wołoszyn 1:55:27 Upadek Karpaty-Ukrainy dzieli OUN na dwie frakcje: Melnikovtsev i Banderivtsi 1:56:11 Druga wojna światowa (1939-1945) 1:59:17 ślady NKWD - Batalion Nachtigall (słowika-Bandera) 1:51:43 Niezależny Ukr. Państwo 1:44:50 Bandera (1909 - 1959) 1:53:42 Babin Yar 1:55:40 Wojna partyzancka 1:44:01 Organizacja nacjonalistów "Ukr" (OUN) 1:57:42 Roman Szuachewicz 1:58:37 Wołyń 1:58:57 UPA - Ukraińska Armia Powstańcza 2:00:04 czystki etniczne (1943) 2:02:32 SS Dywizja Galicyjska 1:39:56 RUSIN zmienia termin ukraiński 2:06:14 Gułag 2:06:31 Jałta 2:10:30 Operacja "Wisła" 2:12:00 Anulowanie Kościoła greckokatolickiego 1:49:25 aneksja Zach Ukr 2:16:33 Powrót Krymu na Ukrainę 2:18:25 Odwilż (1950-1960) 2:30:09 (26 kwietnia 1986) - Katastrofa w Czarnobylu 2:35:30 Ruch 2:37:29 (1991) Niezależność 2:50:29 "Pomarańczowa rewolucja" (2004)
Views: 2629 kasia prada
FNN: NORAD tracking Santa delivering presents, holiday top stories
 
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Sharing a mix of breaking news, Arizona stories, engaging discussions, and popular culture.
Views: 8817 FOX 10 Phoenix
LD19   South Dakota Senate
 
02:06:25
Views: 54 SDPB
Tachyon RAID / Статик с корейцами ? / Пуха уже в СРЕДУ [BNS] [КОРЕЯ]
 
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#BladeAndSoul #BNS #Tachyon #Обновление Стрим в 10:00 Ребята у меня хорошая новость, походу я нашел статик с корейцами на тахиона. Рейд будет в 15:00 по МСК. Кстати в связи с тем что мне вчера запороли джулию то пуха переноситься у меня на Среду. Кстати ребят давайте сделаем так, если под этим стримом соберется 50 лайков то завтра сделаю раздачу 2 аккаунтов. Ну что скажите ? Кстати вся информация о лихорадке есть тут https://vk.com/holygameindustry?w=wall-156796493_3916 Новые оружия и триграммы 14.05 на русском сервере https://youtu.be/fCoCtiGnQ9w Вся информация о конкурсе есть тут https://vk.com/holygameindustry?w=wall-156796493_3421 Установка русификатора и корейского клиента https://youtu.be/6XqN1Q84SKk Уровень аккаунта - полный разбор https://youtu.be/HQDaBkteOKs Огромное спасибо группе https://vk.com/bnscnclub за помощь в данном деле. Ребята реально молодцы =) 💰 💲Хотите поддержать развитие канала или русификатора ? вам однозначно сюда https://donatepay.ru/don/94542 💲💰 👾 Дискорд 🔫https://discord.gg/t89KS6t 🔫👾 👾 Самый лучший VPN 🔫http://nopi.ng/SLIMONA 🔫👾 👾Ютуб канал🔫https://www.youtube.com/c/HolyGameIndustry .;;;;;;;; 👾 👾Твич канал🔫 https://www.twitch.tv/holygameindustry 🔫;;;;;;; 👾 👾Группа ВК🔫 https://vk.com/holygameindustry ; 👾 Support the stream: https://streamlabs.com/holygameindustry Multistreaming with https://restream.io/
Views: 485 Holy Game Industry
Holocaust and Genocide Lecture Series 2019 - February 19, 2019 - Sergio La Porta, Ph.D
 
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THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE Professor Sergio La Porta, Ph.D., CSU Fresno Armenian Studies Program, Armenian Genocide Memorial Lecture
Views: 5 CSUSonoma
Holocaust and Genocide Lecture Series - March 6, 2018 - Sergio La Porta, Ph.D.
 
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Title: The Armenian Genocide Professor Sergio La Porta, Ph.D., CSU Fresno Armenian Studies Program Underwritten by the Armenian Genocide Memorial Lecture Fund Description: The Holocaust & Genocide Lecture Series is supported by the SSU Instructionally Related Activities (IRA) Fund, the Alliance for the Study of the Holocaust and Genocide, the Paul V. Benko Holocaust Education Endowment, the Armenian Genocide Memorial Lecture Fund, the Adele Zygielbaum En, the Thomas Family Foundation, the Center for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide and the Jewish Community Federation (JCF).
Views: 61 CSUSonoma
Republic
 
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A republic is a form of government in which power resides in the people, and the government is ruled by elected leaders run according to law (from Latin: res publica), rather than inherited or appointed (such as through inheritance or divine mandate). In modern times the definition of a republic is also commonly limited to a government which excludes a monarch. Currently, 135 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names. Both modern and ancient republics vary widely in their ideology and composition. In the classical and medieval period of Europe many states were fashioned on the Roman Republic, which referred to the governance of the city of Rome between it having kings, and emperors. The Italian medieval and Renaissance political tradition today referred to as "civic humanism", in America, is sometimes considered to derive directly from Roman republicans such as Sallust and Tacitus. However, Greek-influenced Roman authors, such as Polybius and Cicero, sometimes also used the term as a translation for the Greek politeia which could mean regime generally, but could also be applied to certain specific types of regime which did not exactly correspond to that of the Roman Republic. Republics were not equated with classical democracies such as Athens, but had a democratic aspect. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 152 Audiopedia
Soviet war crimes | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Soviet war crimes Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= War crimes perpetrated by the Soviet Union and its armed forces from 1919 to 1991 include acts committed by the Red Army (later called the Soviet Army) as well as the NKVD, including the NKVD's Internal Troops. In some cases, these acts were committed upon the orders of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in pursuance of the early Soviet Government's policy of Red Terror, in other instances they were committed without orders by Soviet troops against prisoners of war or civilians of countries that had been in armed conflict with the USSR, or they were committed during partisan warfare.A significant number of these incidents occurred in Northern, Central, and Eastern Europe before, during and in the aftermath of World War II, involving summary executions and the mass murder of prisoners of war, such as in the Katyn massacre and mass rape by troops of the Red Army in territories they occupied. When the Allied Powers of World War II founded the post-war International Military Tribunal to examine war crimes committed during the conflict by Nazi Germany, with officials from the Soviet Union taking an active part in the judicial processes, there was no examination of Soviet Forces' actions and no charges were ever brought against its troops, because they were also an undefeated power which then held Eastern Europe under military occupation, marring the historical authority of the Tribunal's activity as being, in part, victor's justice.Today, the Russian government regularly dismisses the war crimes as "Western myth". In Russian history textbooks, the atrocities are either altered to portray the Soviets positively or omitted entirely. In a June 2017 interview, Russian president Vladimir Putin acknowledged the "horrors of Stalinism", but he also criticized the "excessive demonization of Stalin" by "Russia's enemies".
Views: 157 wikipedia tts
"WHAT LIES HAVE YOU BEEN TAUGHT?" Full Panel Discussion
 
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https://nest.aacc.edu/organization/ptk AACC Phi Theta Kappa Omicron Theta Chapter hosted this panel discussion entitled "What Lies Have You Been Taught?" The discussion concentrated on the evidence of bias in how students learned about the Civil War in Maryland and Virginia. This is the culmination of the chapter's Honors in Action project. Panelists included Dr. Russell Rockefeller, Dr. Lester Brooks, Dr. Mary McKiel and John Grady. Recorded Thursday, Dec. 8, 2016, in Humanities 112.
Views: 75 AACC
Russian Empire
 
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The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. It played a major role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe, and expanded to the west and south. It was often in conflict with the Ottoman Empire (which in turn was usually protected by the British). At the beginning of the 19th century, it extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea on the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, and (until 1867) into Alaska in North America on the east. With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and the British Empire. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, ethnicity, and religion. There were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts; they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia. Economically it was heavily rural with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, until they were freed in 1861. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility called Boyars from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and then was ruled by an emperor called the "Tsar". Tsar Ivan III (1462 – 1505) laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged. He tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great (1682 - 1725) fought numerous wars and built a huge empire that became a major European power. He moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, and led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political system with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system. Catherine the Great (1761 - 1796) presided over a golden age. She expanded the nation rapidly by conquest, colonization and diplomacy. She continued Peter the Great's policy of modernisation along West European lines. Tsar Alexander II (1855 - 1881) promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe was to protect the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That involvement by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of Serbia and the Allies, and against the German, Austrian and Ottoman empires. Russia was an absolute monarchy until the Revolution of 1905 and then became a constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, the result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 789 Audiopedia
World Jewish Congress | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Jewish_Congress 00:01:10 1 Organization and related bodies 00:04:29 1.1 Current World Jewish Congress leadership 00:06:18 2 History 00:07:32 2.1 Precursor organizations (1917-1936) 00:12:31 2.2 Foundation (1936) 00:18:20 2.3 WJC efforts during the Holocaust and its aftermath 00:21:14 2.3.1 Riegner Telegram 00:24:20 2.3.2 Rescue efforts 00:27:25 2.3.3 Letter to State Department 00:30:23 2.3.4 Meeting of WJC representative with SS leader Heinrich Himmler 00:31:35 2.3.5 Post-war efforts 00:34:20 2.4 WJC and the creation of the State of Israel 00:36:37 2.5 Negotiations with Germany on reparations and compensation 00:40:38 2.6 WJC efforts on behalf of Soviet Jewry 00:48:30 2.7 Securing the rights of Jews in North Africa and the Middle East 00:52:48 2.8 1950s-1980s 00:54:58 2.8.1 Opposition to UN resolution condemning Zionism as racism 00:56:40 2.8.2 Leadership changes 00:58:03 2.8.2.1 Edgar M. Bronfman 00:59:44 2.8.3 Controversy over Catholic convent's presence at Auschwitz 01:02:00 2.8.4 Diplomatic contacts with Communist countries 01:04:17 2.8.5 Waldheim affair 01:07:30 2.9 Restitution of Holocaust-era assets and compensation payments 01:09:05 2.9.1 Swiss bank settlement 01:14:19 2.9.2 Nazi gold 01:15:45 2.9.3 Agreements with other European countries on Holocaust-era property restitution and compensation 01:17:03 2.9.4 Restitution of looted art 01:18:27 2.10 Relations with Poland 01:24:20 3 Key policies and activities of the World Jewish Congress 01:24:33 3.1 Support for Israel 01:25:06 3.1.1 Fighting the delegitimization of Israel 01:30:09 3.1.2 Support for peace process and opposition to Palestinian unilateralism 01:34:35 3.2 Holocaust legacy issues 01:34:58 3.2.1 Holocaust remembrance 01:37:01 3.2.2 Restitution of Jewish assets 01:38:44 3.2.3 Fighting Holocaust denial, revisionism and glorification of the Nazis 01:42:45 3.2.4 Prosecution of Nazi war criminals 01:44:37 3.3 Fighting anti-Semitism 01:50:54 3.3.1 Hatred on the internet 01:52:34 3.4 Dialogue with other religions 01:53:03 3.4.1 Jewish-Christian dialogue 01:59:19 3.4.2 Dialogue with Islam 02:02:01 3.5 Pluralistic Israel 02:02:35 3.6 Opposing Iran 02:10:28 3.7 Jewish refugees from Arab countries 02:14:06 3.8 Other issues 02:16:48 4 Fundraising and finances 02:17:11 4.1 Controversies, internal conflicts and allegations of financial irregularities (2004-2007) 02:20:48 5 Annex 02:20:57 5.1 Leaders of the World Jewish Congress (1936–present) 02:21:09 5.1.1 List of presidents of the World Jewish Congress 02:22:09 5.1.2 List of secretaries-general of the World Jewish Congress 02:23:26 5.2 Major gatherings of the World Jewish Congress 02:23:37 5.2.1 Prior to 1936 02:24:22 5.2.2 After 1936 02:27:47 5.3 List of member communities and organizations of the World Jewish Congress 02:28:08 5.3.1 WJC member communities 02:35:48 5.3.2 WJC member organizations Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7071725707695886 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The World Jewish Congress (WJC) was founded in Geneva, Switzerland, in August 1936 as an international federation of Jewish communities and organizations. According to its mission statement, the World Jewish Congress' main purpose is to act as "the diplomatic arm of the Jewish people." Membership in the WJC is open to all representative Jewish groups or communities, irrespective of the social, political or economic ideology of the community's host country. The World Jewish Congress headquarters are in New York City, US, and the organization maintains international offices in Brussels, Belgium; Jerusalem, Israel; Paris, France; Moscow, Russia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Geneva, Switzerland. The WJC has special consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council.
Views: 20 wikipedia tts
Anti-Armenian sentiment in Azerbaijan | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Anti-Armenian sentiment in Azerbaijan 00:03:40 1 Early period 00:05:49 2 During the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict 00:09:24 3 Post-1994 era 00:10:20 3.1 Influence on Azerbaijani national identity 00:11:17 3.2 In the Media 00:12:27 3.3 Indoctrination in schools 00:13:46 3.4 Destruction of cultural heritage 00:15:29 3.5 Incidents of violence and hatred 00:16:49 3.6 Denying entry to Azerbaijan 00:18:09 3.7 Official position 00:19:53 3.7.1 Statements by President Ilham Aliyev 00:22:03 3.8 Stance on the Armenian Genocide 00:22:18 4 Reaction 00:22:27 4.1 Armenia 00:24:29 4.2 Azerbaijan 00:26:38 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Anti-Armenian sentiment is widespread in Azerbaijan, mainly due to the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh. According to the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI), Armenians are "the most vulnerable group in Azerbaijan in the field of racism and racial discrimination." According to a 2012 opinion poll, 91% of Azerbaijanis perceive Armenia as "the biggest enemy of Azerbaijan." The word "Armenian" (erməni) is widely used as an insult in Azerbaijan. "Negative stereotypes about Armenians are present in the majority of mass media outlets in Azerbaijan. Those stereotypes are somewhat shared by the public, and they definitely do not come out of nowhere. Stereotypical opinions circulating in the mass media have their deep roots in the public consciousness."Throughout the 20th century, Armenians and the Muslim inhabitants of the Caucasus—Azerbaijanis were called "Caucasian Tatars" before 1918— had been involved in numerous conflicts. Pogroms, massacres and wars solidified oppositional ethnic identities between the two groups, and have contributed to the development of national consciousnesses among both Armenians and Azeris. From 1918 to 1920, organized killings of Armenians occurred in Azerbaijan, especially in the Armenian cultural centers in Baku and Shusha, under the Russian Empire.However, contemporary Armenophobia in Azerbaijan traces its roots to the last years of the Soviet Union, when Armenians demanded that the Moscow authorities transfer the mostly Armenian-populated Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast in the Azerbaijan SSR to the Armenian SSR. In response to those Armenian demands, anti-Armenian rallies were held in various cities, where nationalist groups encouraged anti-Armenian feeling that led to pogroms in Sumgait, Kirovabad and Baku. An estimated 350,000 Armenians left between 1988 and 1990 as a direct result of the violence directed towards them.Disputes over the ownership of Nagorno-Karabakh eventually escalated into a large-scale military conflict, where Armenian forces took control of most of former NKAO and seven adjacent districts. According to HRW, systematic abuse of human rights was carried out by Karabakh Armenian forces and by the governments of Azerbaijan and Armenia. A cease-fire was achieved in 1994 and still remains in effect as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic is de facto independent, while de jure inside Azerbaijan's borders. The unresolved conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh as well as the presence of up to 880,000 refugees and IDPs in Azerbaijan contributed significantly to aggravating the economic, social and political situation in Azerbaijan, with around 14% of the country's territory occupied by Armenian forces.The Armenian side has accused the Azerbaijani government of carrying out anti-Armenian policy inside and outside the country, which includes propaganda of hate toward Armenia and Armenians and the destruction of Armenian cultural heritage.According to Fyodor Lukyanov, Editor-in-Chief of the journal Russia in Global Affairs, "Armenophobia is the institutional part of the modern Azerbaijani statehood and Karabakh is in the center of it". In 2011, the ECRI report on Azerbaijan stated that "the constant negative official and media discourse" against Armenia fosters "a negative climate of opinion regarding people of Armenian o ...
Views: 82 wikipedia tts
World Bank Group
 
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The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to poor countries. It is the largest and most famous development bank in the world and is an observer at the United Nations Development Group. The bank is based in Washington, D.C. and provided around $30 billion in loans and assistance to "developing" and transition countries in 2012. The bank's stated mission is to reduce poverty. The World Bank's (the IBRD and IDA's) activities are focused on developing countries, in fields such as human development (e.g. education, health), agriculture and rural development (e.g. irrigation and rural services), environmental protection (e.g. pollution reduction, establishing and enforcing regulations), infrastructure (e.g. roads, urban regeneration, and electricity), large industrial construction projects, and governance (e.g. anti-corruption, legal institutions development). The IBRD and IDA provide loans at preferential rates to member countries, as well as grants to the poorest countries. Loans or grants for specific projects are often linked to wider policy changes in the sector or the country's economy as a whole. For example, a loan to improve coastal environmental management may be linked to development of new environmental institutions at national and local levels and the implementation of new regulations to limit pollution, or not, such as in the World Bank financed constructions of paper mills along the Rio Uruguay in 2006. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 799 Audiopedia
Armenian national liberation movement | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_national_liberation_movement 00:03:26 1 Origins 00:10:06 1.1 National Revival 00:11:39 1.2 Armenian majority 00:12:09 2 Founding 00:17:29 2.1 Notable figures 00:18:12 2.2 The Church 00:19:23 2.3 Great Powers, Russo-Turkish War 00:23:22 2.4 Armenian diaspora 00:24:37 3 Activities (Ottoman Empire) 00:24:48 3.1 Abdul Hamid II Era 00:25:21 3.1.1 Armed movement 00:25:45 3.1.1.1 Capitol 00:27:11 3.1.1.2 Van/Bitlis Vilayets (Lake Van Region) 00:28:53 3.1.1.3 Diyarbekir/Aleppo Vilayets 00:31:17 3.1.2 Armenian reform program 00:32:30 3.1.2.1 Security, Reform, Order 00:34:48 3.1.2.2 Hamidian massacres 00:36:02 3.1.3 Abdul Hamid II's position 00:36:32 3.2 Second Constitutional Era 00:37:40 3.2.1 Armed movement 00:37:48 3.2.1.1 Van/Bitlis Vilayets (Lake Van Region) 00:38:17 3.2.1.2 Balkans 00:40:10 3.2.2 The Ottoman parliament 00:41:24 3.2.3 The reform package 00:42:50 3.2.4 Committee of Union and Progress's position 00:43:26 4 Activities (Russian Empire) 00:43:36 4.1 Edict on Armenian church property 1903-1904 00:45:34 4.2 Armenian-Azeri massacres 1904-1905 00:46:35 4.3 Tribune of People, 1912 00:47:25 5 Activities during World War I 00:49:42 5.1 Armed movement 00:50:39 5.1.1 Initial 00:52:18 5.1.2 The first year 00:54:43 5.1.3 The second year 00:56:03 5.1.4 The third year 00:57:30 5.1.5 Last year 01:01:58 5.2 Path to Unified Armenia 01:03:58 6 Activities during Interwar period 01:04:08 6.1 Territorial disputes of Armenia 01:05:17 6.2 Sovietization & exile of Armenian leaders 01:07:10 6.3 Cilicia and French Armenian Legion 01:08:08 6.4 Republic of Mountainous Armenia, 1922 01:09:25 6.5 Operation Nemesis 01:10:07 7 Achievements of the movement 01:10:17 7.1 Establishment of an Armenian State 01:11:58 7.2 Cultural heritage 01:12:23 8 Timeline of the movement Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Armenian national liberation movement (Armenian: Հայ ազգային-ազատագրական շարժում Hay azgayin-azatagrakan sharzhum) aimed at the establishment of an Armenian state. It included social, cultural, but primarily political and military movements that reached their height during World War I and the following years. Influenced by the Age of Enlightenment and the rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire, the Armenian national movement developed in the early 1860s. Its emergence was similar to that of movements in the Balkan nations, especially the Greek revolutionaries who fought the Greek War of Independence. The Armenian élite and various militant groups sought to defend the mostly rural Armenian population of the eastern Ottoman Empire from the Muslims, being Christian, but the ultimate goal was to push for reforms in the Six vilayets at first and after this failed, the creation of an Armenian state in the Armenian-populated areas controlled at the time by the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire.Since the late 1880s, the movement engaged in guerrilla warfare with the Ottoman government and the Kurdish irregulars in the eastern regions of the empire, led by the three Armenian political parties named the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party, the Armenakan Party and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. Armenians generally saw Russia as their natural ally in the fight against Turks although Russia maintained an oppressive policy in the Caucasus. Only after losing its presence in Europe after the Balkan Wars, the Ottoman government was forced to sign the Armenian reform package in early 1914, however it was disrupted by World War I. During World War I, the Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated by the government in the Armenian Genocide. According to some estimates, from 1894 to 1923, about 1,500,000—2,000,000 Armenians were killed by the Ottoman Empire. After the decision to exterminate the Armenians was taken by the Ottoman Ministr ...
Views: 76 wikipedia tts
Passport
 
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A passport is a travel document, usually issued by the government of a nation, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder for the purpose of international travel. Standard passports contain the holder's name, place and date of birth, photograph, signature, and other identifying information. Passports are moving towards including biometric information embedded in a microchip embedded in the document, making them machine-readable and difficult to counterfeit. A passport specifies nationality, but not necessarily the place of residence of the passport holder. A passport holder is normally entitled to enter the country that issued the passport, though some people entitled to a passport may not be full citizens with right of abode. A passport is a document certifying identity and nationality; having the document does not of itself grant any rights, such as protection by the consulate of the issuing country, although it may indicate that the holder has such rights. Some passports attest to status as a diplomat or other official, entitled to rights and privileges such as immunity from arrest or prosecution, arising from international treaties.. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 717 Audiopedia
Internet censorship and surveillance by country | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_censorship_and_surveillance_by_country 00:00:13 1 Classifications 00:00:50 1.1 iFreedom on the Net/i reports 00:02:56 1.2 OpenNet Initiative 00:06:31 1.3 Reporters Without Borders 00:06:40 1.3.1 RWB iEnemies of the Internet/i and iCountries under Surveillance/i lists 00:08:22 1.3.2 RWB iSpecial report on Internet Surveillance/i 00:09:33 1.4 iCountry Reports on Human Rights Practices/i 00:10:30 2 Alphabetical index to classifications 00:10:41 3 Country classifications 00:11:24 3.1 Pervasive censorship or surveillance 00:12:34 3.1.1 span  00:14:50 3.1.2 span  00:16:57 3.1.3 span  00:19:24 3.1.4 span  00:21:15 3.1.5 span  00:23:37 3.1.6 span  00:25:40 3.1.7 span  00:27:43 3.1.8 span  00:28:47 3.1.9 span  00:29:46 3.1.10 span  00:30:28 3.1.11 span  00:31:56 3.1.12 span  00:32:44 3.1.13 span  00:34:41 3.1.14 span  00:36:20 3.1.15 span  00:37:12 3.1.16 span  00:38:28 3.1.17 span  00:40:16 3.1.18 span  00:41:38 3.1.19 span  00:43:35 3.2 Substantial censorship or surveillance 00:44:46 3.2.1 span  00:46:58 3.2.2 span  00:48:33 3.2.3 span  00:50:18 3.2.4 span  00:51:08 3.2.5 span  00:53:20 3.2.6 span  00:55:13 3.2.7 span  00:56:21 3.2.8 span  00:58:09 3.2.9 span  01:04:00 3.2.10 span  01:07:14 3.3 Selective censorship or surveillance 01:08:22 3.3.1 span  01:10:50 3.3.2 span  01:11:34 3.3.3 span  01:14:15 3.3.4 span  01:15:36 3.3.5 span  01:18:02 3.3.6 span  01:19:55 3.3.7 span  01:21:55 3.3.8 span  01:24:51 3.3.9 span  01:25:29 3.3.10 span  01:28:19 3.3.11 span  01:29:42 3.3.12 span  01:31:19 3.3.13 span  01:33:03 3.3.14 span  01:35:15 3.3.15 span  01:36:34 3.3.16 span  01:37:38 3.3.17 span  01:39:52 3.3.18 span  01:40:50 3.3.19 span  01:42:05 3.3.20 span  01:44:09 3.3.21 span  01:47:48 3.3.22 span  01:49:35 3.3.23 span  01:50:35 3.3.24 span  01:51:50 3.3.25 span  01:53:37 3.3.26 span  01:53:45 3.3.27 span  01:56:32 3.3.28 span  01:56:40 3.3.29 span  01:59:15 3.3.30 span  02:00:50 3.3.31 span  02:02:30 3.3.32 span  02:03:22 3.3.33 span  02:05:34 3.3.34 span  02:06:40 3.3.35 span  02:09:07 3.3.36 span  02:13:10 3.3.37 span  02:16:26 3.3.38 span  02:17:52 3.3.39 span  02:18:56 3.3.40 span  02:19:51 3.4 Little or no censorship or surveillance 02:21:03 3.4.1 span  02:23:40 3.4.2 span  02:24:18 3.4.3 span  02:24:58 3.4.4 span  02:27:29 3.4.5 span  02:28:31 3.4.6 span  02:31:59 3.4.7 span  02:33:23 3.4.8 span  02:34:07 3.4.9 span  02:35:13 3.4.10 span  02:36:26 3.4.11 span  02:37:18 3.4.12 span  02:38:17 3.4.13 span  02:38:52 3.4.14 span  02:40:05 3.4.15 span  02:41:08 3.4.16 span  02:42:35 3.4.17 span  02:44:02 3.4.18 span  02:45:16 3.4.19 span  02:46:44 3.4.20 span  02:47:47 3.4.21 span  02:48:39 3.4.22 span  02:49:48 3.4.23 span  02:50:54 3.4.24 span  02:51:56 3.4.25 span  02:53:00 3.4.26 span  02:53:56 3.4.27 span  02:55:18 3.4.28 span  02:57:13 3.4.29 span  02:58:07 3.4.30 span  02:58:49 3.4.31 span  02:59:45 3.4.32 span  03:00:46 3.4.33 span  03:03:44 3.4.34 span  03:06:01 3.4.35 span  03:07:17 3.4.36 span  03:10:27 3.4.37 span  03:11:37 3.4.38 span  03:14:06 3.4.39 span  03:15:00 3.4.40 span  03:17:06 3.4.41 span  03:18:27 3.4.42 span  03:20:44 3.4.43 span  03:21:44 3.4.44 span  03:22:41 3.4.45 span  03:23:35 3.4.46 span  03:24:51 3.4.47 span  03:25:50 3.4.48 span  03:26:57 3.4.49 span  03:29:00 3.4.50 span  03:30:38 3.4.51 span  03:31:56 3.4.52 span  03:32:40 3.4.53 span  03:34:06 3.4.54 span  03:35:16 3.4.55 span  03:36:16 3.4.56 span  03:40:48 3.4.57 span  03:42:21 3.4.58 span  03:43:41 3.4.59 span  03:44:33 3.4.60 span  03:45:13 3.4.61 span  03:46:46 3.4.62 span  03:47:31 3.4.63 span  03:48:45 3.4.64 span  03:50:19 3.4.65 span  03:52:03 3.4.66 span  03:52:44 3.4.67 span  03:53:21 3.4.68 span    03:53:52 3.4.69 span  03:56:00 3.4.70 span  03:56:41 3.4.71 span  03:58:09 3.4.72 span  03:58:52 3.4.73 span  03:59:52 3.4.74 span  04:01:31 3.4.75 span  04:02:42 3.4.76 span  04:03:58 3.4.77 span  04:04:42 3.4.78 span  04:05:09 3.4.79 span  04:06:32 3.4.80 span  04:07:12 3.4.81 span  04:08:08 3.4.82 span  04:09:47 3.4.83 span  04:10:46 3.4.84 span  04:12:25 3.4.85 span  04:13:23 3.4.86 span  04:15:22 3.4.87 span  04:16:34 3.4.88 span  04:18:26 ...
Views: 135 wikipedia tts
2010 Pakistan floods
 
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The floods in Pakistan began in late July 2010, resulting from heavy monsoon rains in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and, Balochistan regions of Pakistan, which affected the Indus River basin. Approximately one-fifth of Pakistan's total land area was underwater, approximately 796,095 square kilometres. According to Pakistani government data, the floods directly affected about 20 million people, mostly by destruction of property, livelihood and infrastructure, with a death toll of close to 2,000. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon had initially asked for US$460 million for emergency relief, noting that the flood was the worst disaster he had ever seen. Only 20% of the relief funds requested had been received on 15 August 2010. The U.N. had been concerned that aid was not arriving fast enough, and the World Health Organization reported that ten million people were forced to drink unsafe water. The Pakistani economy was harmed by extensive damage to infrastructure and crops. Damage to structures was estimated to exceed US$4 billion, and wheat crop damages were estimated to be over US$500 million. Total economic impact may have been as much as US$43 billion. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 490 Audiopedia
Foreign relations of Taiwan
 
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The foreign relations of Taiwan, constitutionally and officially the Republic of China, are the relations between the Republic of China and other countries. The Republic of China is recognized by 21 United Nations member states, as well as by the Holy See. The ROC maintains diplomatic relations with those countries, as well as unofficial relations with other countries via its representative offices and consulates. The Republic of China participated in the Moscow Conference, the Dumbarton Oaks Conference, the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and was a charter member of the United Nations. In 1949, the Nationalists lost the Chinese Civil War in mainland China and retreated to Taiwan. Despite the major loss of territory, the ROC continued to be recognized as the legitimate government of China by the UN and by many non-Communist states. In 1971, the UN expelled the ROC and transferred China's seat to the People's Republic of China. In addition to the ad tempus recognition of ROC by majority of countries before UN Resolution 2758, the Republic of China lost its membership in all the intergovernmental organizations related to the UN. As the UN and related organizations like International Court of Justice are the most common venues for effective execution of international law and serve as the international community for states in the post-World War II period, a majority of the countries aligned with the West in the Cold War terminated diplomatic relations with the ROC and recognized quid pro quo of the PRC instead. However, the Republic of China fulfills all the requirements in Article 3, 4, 5, 6, 110 and Chapter V of the United Nations Charter. The ROC's de jure seat is currently occupied by the People's Republic of China in the United Nations under the UN Charter. The ROC continues to maintain de facto relations, including with most of the non-governmental organizations at the United Nations, in addition with the concern from UNESCO. Exclusively, the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, which is entitled by the founding of the United Nations as the cornerstone of modern-day diplomacy since the Vienna Congress, was signed and ratified by the Republic of China on 18 April 1961 and 19 December 1969 including Optional Protocol concerning the Compulsory Settlement of Disputes. Due to ROC's insecurity and intolerance in the 1970s and 1980s after being expelled by the UN and the termination of official US-ROC diplomatic relations, but by the American persuasion Taiwan has been gradually democratized and adopting universal suffrage from the one party-military rule under the leadership of President Chiang Ching-kuo. The first direct presidential election was held in 1996 and the incumbent President Lee Teng-hui was elected. As of May Fourth 2015, ROC nationals are eligible for preferential visa treatment from 142 countries and areas. In the context of Superpower and influential diplomacy, ROC's traditional and sober allies includes United States of America, Canada, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 494 Audiopedia
World War II by country | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: World War II by country Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Nearly every country and territory in the world participated in World War II, with the exception of only a few nations which remained neutral. The Second World War pitted two alliances against each other, the Axis powers and the Allied powers. The leading Axis powers were Nazi Germany, the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Japan; while the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union and China were the "Big Four" Allied powers.
Views: 84 wikipedia tts
Albania | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Albania 00:03:19 1 Etymology 00:04:36 2 History 00:04:45 2.1 Early history 00:07:51 2.2 Middle Ages 00:10:50 2.2.1 Albania under the Ottoman Empire 00:14:12 2.3 National Renaissance 00:16:46 2.3.1 Independence 00:19:35 2.4 First Republic 00:23:38 2.5 Communism 00:26:41 2.6 Fourth Republic 00:28:47 2.7 Contemporary 00:30:50 3 Geography 00:33:32 3.1 Climate 00:36:08 3.2 Biodiversity 00:38:46 4 Administrative divisions 00:40:44 5 Politics 00:40:53 5.1 Government 00:42:49 5.2 Foreign relations 00:45:21 5.3 Military 00:47:23 6 Economy 00:49:51 6.1 Primary sector 00:51:53 6.2 Secondary sector 00:53:24 6.3 Tertiary sector 00:56:13 6.4 Transport 00:58:31 7 Infrastructure 00:58:40 7.1 Education 01:00:29 7.2 Energy 01:02:21 7.3 Technology and media 01:04:16 7.4 Health 01:06:00 8 Demography 01:08:47 8.1 Minorities 01:12:45 8.2 Language 01:16:03 8.3 Religion 01:21:19 9 Culture 01:21:28 9.1 Symbols 01:23:16 9.2 Cuisine 01:26:57 9.3 Architecture 01:29:32 9.4 Music 01:31:45 9.5 Arts 01:33:38 9.6 Literature 01:37:34 9.7 Cinema 01:40:11 9.8 Sports 01:43:01 9.9 Diaspora 01:44:05 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Albania ( (listen) a(w)l-BAY-nee-ə; Albanian: Shqipëri or Shqipëria; Gheg Albanian: Shqipni or Shqipnia also Shqypni or Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë, pronounced [ɾɛpuˈblika ɛ ʃcipəˈɾiːsə]), is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea. It is bounded by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast. Geographically, the country displays varied climatic, geological, hydrological and morphological conditions, defined in an area of 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi). It possesses remarkable diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps as well as the Korab, Skanderbeg, Pindus and Ceraunian Mountains to the hot and sunny coasts of the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Sea along the Mediterranean Sea. Historically, the area of Albania was populated by various Illyrian, Thracian and Ancient Greek tribes as well as several Greek colonies established in the Illyrian coast. The area was annexed in the 3rd century by Romans and became an integral part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Illyricum. The autonomous Principality of Arbër emerged in 1190, established by archon Progon in the Krujë, within the Byzantine Empire. In the late thirteenth century, Charles of Anjou conquered Albanian territories from the Byzantines and established the medieval Kingdom of Albania, which at its maximal extension was extending from Durrës along the coast to Butrint in the south. In the mid-fifteenth century, it was conquered by the Ottomans. The modern nation state of Albania emerged in 1912 following the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars. The modern Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, a Communist state titled the People's Socialist Republic of Albania was founded under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour. The country experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the fourth Republic of Albania was established. Politically, the country is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the tertiary sector followed by the secondary and primary sector. It went through a process of transition, following the end of communism in 1990, from a centralized to a market-based economy. It also provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.The country is a mem ...
Views: 60 wikipedia tts
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Armenia ( (listen); Armenian: Հայաստան, translit. Hayastan, IPA: [hɑjɑsˈtɑn]; Russian: Армения; Armeniya), officially the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Armenian SSR; Armenian: Հայկական Սովետական Սոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն, translit. Haykakan Sovetakan Soc'ialistakan Hanrapetut'yun; Russian: Армянская Советская Социалистическая Республика, translit. Armyanskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also commonly referred to as Soviet Armenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922 located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. It was established in December 1920, when the Soviets took over control of the short-lived First Republic of Armenia and lasted until 1991. It is sometimes called the Second Republic of Armenia, following the First Republic of Armenia's demise. As part of the Soviet Union, the Armenian SSR transformed from a largely agricultural hinterland to an important industrial production center, while its population almost quadrupled from around 880,000 in 1926 to 3.3 million in 1989 due to natural growth and large-scale influx of Armenian Genocide survivors and their descendants. On August 23, 1990, it was renamed the Republic of Armenia after its sovereignty was declared, but remained in the Soviet Union until its official proclamation of independence on 21 September 1991. Its independence was recognized on 26 December 1991 when the Soviet Union ceased to exist. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the state of the post-Soviet Republic of Armenia existed until the adoption of the new constitution in 1995.
Views: 20 wikipedia tts
Ottoman Empire | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Ottoman Empire Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= The Ottoman Empire (; Ottoman Turkish: دولت عليه عثمانیه‎, Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye, literally "The Exalted Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires. The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged. The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, and thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent, especially with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks.The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.
Views: 131 Subhajit Sahu
Republic | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic 00:02:32 1 Etymology 00:05:29 2 History 00:05:59 2.1 Classical republics 00:07:57 2.2 Other ancient republics 00:08:54 2.3 Indian subcontinent 00:12:56 2.4 Icelandic Commonwealth 00:14:17 2.5 Mercantile republics 00:17:43 2.5.1 Mercantile republics outside Europe 00:18:06 2.6 Calvinist republics 00:20:22 2.7 Liberal republics 00:27:38 2.8 Decolonization 00:28:51 2.9 Socialist republics 00:30:24 2.10 Islamic republics 00:31:34 3 Head of state 00:31:43 3.1 Structure 00:33:58 3.2 Elections 00:35:46 3.3 Ambiguities 00:38:07 3.4 Sub-national republics 00:40:47 4 Other meanings 00:40:56 4.1 Political philosophy 00:42:22 4.2 United States 00:45:20 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a “public matter”, not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited, but are attained through democracy, oligarchy or autocracy. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic or representative democracy.As of 2017, 159 of the world’s 206 sovereign states use the word “republic” as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word “republic” used in the names of all nations with elected governments. While heads of state often tend to claim that they rule only by the “consent of the governed”, elections in some countries have been found to be held more for the purpose of “show” than for the actual purpose of in reality providing citizens with any genuine ability to choose their own leaders.The word republic comes from the Latin term res publica, which literally means “public thing,” “public matter,” or “public affair” and was used to refer to the state as a whole. The term developed its modern meaning in reference to the constitution of the ancient Roman Republic, lasting from the overthrow of the kings in 509 B.C. to the establishment of the Empire in 27 B.C. This constitution was characterized by a Senate composed of wealthy aristocrats and wielding significant influence; several popular assemblies of all free citizens, possessing the power to elect magistrates and pass laws; and a series of magistracies with varying types of civil and political authority. Most often a republic is a single sovereign state, but there are also sub-sovereign state entities that are referred to as republics, or that have governments that are described as “republican” in nature. For instance, Article IV of the United States Constitution "guarantee[s] to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government". In contrast, the former Soviet Union, which described itself as being a group of “Republics” and also as a “federal multinational state composed of 15 republics”, was widely viewed as being a totalitarian form of government and not a genuine republic, since its electoral system was structured so as to automatically guarantee the election of government-sponsored candidates.
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Iranian Revolution | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:46:17
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Iranian Revolution Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Iranian Revolution (Persian: انقلاب ایران‎, translit. Enqelāb-e Irān; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution) was a series of events involving the overthrow of the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States, and eventual replacement with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution, supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements. Demonstrations against the Shah commenced in October 1977, developing into a campaign of civil resistance that included both secular and religious elements and which intensified in January 1978. Between August and December 1978, strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country. The Shah left Iran for exile on 16 January 1979, as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and Shapour Bakhtiar who was an opposition-based prime minister. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government, and returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians. The royal reign collapsed shortly after on 11 February when guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting, bringing Khomeini to official power. Iran voted by national referendum to become an Islamic republic on 1 April 1979 and to formulate and approve a new theocratic-republican constitution whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country in December 1979. The revolution was unusual for the surprise it created throughout the world: it lacked many of the customary causes of revolution (defeat at war, a financial crisis, peasant rebellion, or disgruntled military), occurred in a nation that was experiencing relative prosperity, produced profound change at great speed, was massively popular, resulted in the exile of many Iranians, and replaced a pro-Western authoritarian monarchy with an anti-Western authoritarian theocracy based on the concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (or velayat-e faqih). It was a relatively non-violent revolution, and it helped to redefine the meaning and practice of modern revolutions (although there was violence in its aftermath).
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Decolonization | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:27:21
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decolonization 00:02:01 1 Methods and stages 00:06:41 2 History 00:08:40 2.1 American Revolution 00:09:21 2.2 Haitian Revolution 00:09:51 2.3 Spanish America 00:12:07 2.4 Ottoman Empire 00:14:25 2.4.1 Egypt 00:16:04 2.4.2 Greece 00:16:46 2.4.3 Bulgaria 00:17:36 2.4.4 Romania 00:17:58 2.4.5 Serbia 00:18:18 2.4.6 Montenegro 00:19:55 2.5 British Empire 00:25:53 2.5.1 Violence, civil warfare and partition 00:28:57 2.6 French Empire 00:33:13 2.7 After 1918 00:33:23 2.7.1 Western European colonial powers 00:36:44 2.7.2 United States 00:42:03 2.7.3 Japan 00:44:40 2.7.4 Central Europe 00:46:07 2.8 After 1945 00:46:17 2.8.1 Planning for decolonization 00:46:26 2.8.1.1 U.S. and Philippines 00:48:34 2.8.1.2 Portugal 00:50:06 2.8.1.3 Belgium 00:51:18 2.8.1.4 The Netherlands 00:53:42 2.8.2 United Nations Trust Territories 00:54:36 2.8.3 The emergence of the Third World (1945–present) 01:00:54 2.8.4 Decolonization of Africa 01:05:24 2.8.5 Decolonization in the Americas after 1945 01:06:43 2.8.6 Decolonization of Asia 01:09:35 2.8.7 Decolonization in Europe 01:11:21 2.8.8 Decolonization of Oceania 01:12:24 3 Challenges 01:12:42 3.1 State-building 01:13:40 3.2 Nation-building 01:14:37 3.2.1 Settled populations 01:15:58 3.3 Economic development 01:17:37 3.3.1 Effects on the colonizers 01:20:19 3.3.2 Effects on the former colonies 01:20:29 4 Post-colonial organizations 01:21:17 5 Assassinated anti-colonialist leaders 01:25:07 6 Timeline of independence 01:25:41 6.1 18th century to World War I 01:25:52 6.2 Interwar period 01:26:01 6.3 spanCold War 01:26:10 6.4 Post–Cold War era 01:26:20 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7540166739873464 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism, the latter being the process whereby a nation establishes and maintains its domination on overseas territories. The concept particularly applies to the dismantlement, during the second half of the 20th century, of the colonial empires established prior to World War I throughout the world. Scholars focus especially on the movements in the colonies demanding independence, such as Creole nationalism.The United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization has stated that in the process of decolonization there is no alternative to the colonizer but to allow a process of self-determination, but in practice decolonization may involve either nonviolent revolution or national liberation wars by pro-independence groups. It may be intramural or involve the intervention of foreign powers acting individually or through international bodies such as the United Nations. Although examples of decolonization can be found as early as the writings of Thucydides, there have been several particularly active periods of decolonization in modern times. These include the breakup of the Spanish Empire in the 19th century; of the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian empires following World War I; of the British, French, Dutch, Japanese, Portuguese, Belgian and Italian colonial empires following World War II; and of the Soviet Union (successor to the Russian Empire) at the end of the Cold War in 1991.Decolonization has been used to refer to the intellectual decolonization from the colonizers' ideas that made the colonized feel inferior.
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Albania | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:43:18
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Albania Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Albania ( (listen) a(w)l-BAY-nee-ə; Albanian: Shqipëri or Shqipëria; Gheg Albanian: Shqipni or Shqipnia also Shqypni or Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë, pronounced [ɾɛpuˈblika ɛ ʃcipəˈɾiːsə]), is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea. It is bounded by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast. Geographically, the country displays varied climatic, geological, hydrological and morphological conditions, defined in an area of 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi). It possesses remarkable diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps as well as the Korab, Skanderbeg, Pindus and Ceraunian Mountains to the hot and sunny coasts of the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Sea along the Mediterranean Sea. Historically, the area of Albania was populated by various Illyrian, Thracian and Ancient Greek tribes as well as several Greek colonies established in the Illyrian coast. The area was annexed in the 3rd century by Romans and became an integral part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Illyricum. The autonomous Principality of Arbër emerged in 1190, established by archon Progon in the Krujë, within the Byzantine Empire. In the late thirteenth century, Charles of Anjou conquered Albanian territories from the Byzantines and established the medieval Kingdom of Albania, which at its maximal extension was extending from Durrës along the coast to Butrint in the south. In the mid-fifteenth century, it was conquered by the Ottomans. The modern nation state of Albania emerged in 1912 following the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars. The modern Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, a Communist state titled the People's Socialist Republic of Albania was founded under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour. The country experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the fourth Republic of Albania was established. Politically, the country is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the tertiary sector followed by the secondary and primary sector. It went through a process of transition, following the end of communism in 1990, from a centralized to a market-based economy. It also provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.The country is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, WTO, COE, OSCE and OIC. It is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union. In addition it is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, including the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and Union for the Mediterranean.
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Russian Federation | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia 00:05:32 1 Etymology 00:07:19 2 History 00:07:28 2.1 Early history 00:09:14 2.2 Kievan Rus' 00:12:33 2.3 Grand Duchy of Moscow 00:14:49 2.4 Tsardom of Russia 00:19:10 2.5 Imperial Russia 00:24:38 2.6 February Revolution and Russian Republic 00:26:13 2.7 Soviet Russia and civil war 00:27:46 2.8 Soviet Union 00:31:41 2.8.1 World War II 00:36:03 2.8.2 Cold War 00:40:19 2.9 Russian Federation 00:47:10 3 Politics 00:47:19 3.1 Governance 00:49:28 3.2 Foreign relations 00:54:06 3.3 Military 00:57:02 3.4 Political divisions 00:59:52 4 Geography 01:01:04 4.1 Topography 01:04:56 4.2 Climate 01:07:07 4.3 Biodiversity 01:08:19 5 Economy 01:15:44 5.1 Energy 01:18:19 5.2 External trade and investment 01:19:12 5.3 Agriculture 01:21:22 5.4 Transport 01:26:09 5.5 Science and technology 01:32:23 5.6 Space exploration 01:34:41 5.7 Water supply and sanitation 01:35:25 5.8 Corruption 01:38:01 6 Demographics 01:43:21 6.1 Largest cities 01:43:29 6.2 Ethnic groups 01:43:55 6.3 Language 01:45:19 6.4 Religion 01:55:31 6.5 Health 01:57:25 6.6 Education 01:59:19 7 Culture 01:59:27 7.1 Folk culture and cuisine 02:02:48 7.2 Architecture 02:06:16 7.3 Visual arts 02:09:16 7.4 Music and dance 02:12:01 7.5 Literature and philosophy 02:15:32 7.6 Cinema, animation and media 02:19:16 7.7 Sports 02:26:13 7.8 National holidays and symbols 02:30:11 7.9 Tourism 02:33:06 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.840215070640857 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Russia (Russian: Росси́я, tr. Rossiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijə]), officially the Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə]), is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), Russia is by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, wh ...
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Soviet Union | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:39:51
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Soviet Union Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), commonly known as the Soviet Union or Russia, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 22 December 1922 to 26 December 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR). Russians dominated the Soviet regime. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union had spanned eleven time zones and incorporated a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, the Soviet Union shared land borders with Norway, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It shared its maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the US state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. With an area of 22,402,200 square kilometres (8,649,500 sq mi), the Soviet Union was the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the third most populous, with over 288 million people as of 1989, with 80% of the population living in the western, European part of the country. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917, when the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During this period of totalitarian rule, political paranoia fermented and the late-1930s Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in over 600,000 deaths. Suppression of political critics and forced labor were carried out by Stalin's government. In 1933, a major famine that became known as the Holodomor in Soviet Ukraine struck multiple Soviet grain-growing regions, causing the deaths of some 3 to 7 million people.In August 1939, days before the start of World War II, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Germany, after which the two countries invaded Poland in September 1939. In June 1941, the pact collapsed as Germany turned to attack the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk. The territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union and the postwar division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the West, led by the United States of America. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Eastern Bloc, united under the Warsaw Pact in 1955, confronted the Western Bloc, united under NATO in 1949. On 5 March 1953, Stalin died and was eventually succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization of Soviet society through the Khrushchev Thaw. The Soviet Union took an early lead in the Space Race, with the first artificial satellite and the first human spaceflight. Dissatisfied with Khrushchev's policies, the Communist Party's conservative wing led a coup d'état aga ...
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History of the Jews in Iran | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:01:08
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of the Jews in Iran Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= The beginnings of Jewish history in Iran date back to late biblical times. The biblical books of Isaiah, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, contain references to the life and experiences of Jews in Persia. In the book of Ezra, the Persian kings are credited with permitting and enabling the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their Temple; its reconstruction was carried out "according to the decree of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia" (Ezra 6:14). This great event in Jewish history took place in the late 6th century BC, by which time there was a well-established and influential Jewish community in Persia. Persian Jews have lived in the territories of today's Iran for over 2,700 years, since the first Jewish diaspora when the Assyrian king Shalmaneser V conquered the (Northern) Kingdom of Israel (722 BC) and sent the Israelites (the Ten Lost Tribes) into captivity at Khorasan. In 586 BC, the Babylonians expelled large populations of Jews from Judea to the Babylonian captivity. Jews who migrated to ancient Persia mostly lived in their own communities. The Persian Jewish communities include the ancient (and until the mid-20th century still-extant) communities not only of Iran, but also the Azerbaijani, Armenian, Georgian, Iraqi, Bukharan, and Mountain Jewish communities.Some of the communities were isolated from other Jewish communities, to the extent that their classification as "Persian Jews" is a matter of linguistic or geographical convenience rather than actual historical relationship with one another. During the peak of the Persian Empire, Jews are thought to have comprised as much as 20% of the population.Jews trace their heritage in Iran to the Babylonian Exile of the 6th century BC and have retained their ethnic, linguistic, and religious identity. However, a Library of Congress country study on Iran states that "Over the centuries the Jews of Iran became physically, culturally, and linguistically indistinguishable from the non-Jewish population. The overwhelming majority of Jews speak Persian as their mother language, and a tiny minority, Kurdish." In 2012, Iran's official census reported 8,756 Jewish citizens, a decline from 25,000 in 2009.
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Cold War | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:47:38
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Cold War Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states (the Eastern Bloc), and the United States with its allies (the Western Bloc) after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins with 1946, the year U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U.S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, and ending between the Revolutions of 1989 and the 1991 collapse of the USSR, which ended communism in Eastern Europe. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional wars known as proxy wars. The Cold War split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the Soviet Union and the United States as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The USSR was a Marxist–Leninist state led by its Communist Party, which in turn was dominated by a leader with different titles over time, and a small committee called the Politburo. The Party controlled the state, the press, the military, the economy and many organizations throughout the Second World, including the Warsaw Pact and other satellites, and funded Communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with Communist China, particularly following the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. In opposition stood the capitalist West, led by the United States, a federal republic with a two-party presidential system. The First World nations of the Western Bloc were generally liberal democratic with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of banana republics and other authoritarian regimes throughout the Third World, most of which were the Western Bloc's former colonies. Some major Cold War frontlines such as Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Congo were still Western colonies in 1947. A neutral bloc arose with the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought good relations with both sides. The two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat, but they were heavily armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war. Each side had a nuclear strategy that discouraged an attack by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would lead to the total destruction of the attacker—the doctrine of mutually assured destruction (MAD). Aside from the development of the two sides’ nuclear arsenals, and their deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, psychological warfare, massive propaganda campaigns and espionage, far-reaching embargos, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race. The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe (for example, supporting the anti-communist side in the Greek Civil War) and creating the NATO alliance. The Berlin Blockade (1948–49) was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the Communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War (1950–53), the conflict expanded. The USSR and the USA competed for influence in Latin America and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. The Soviets suppressed the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. The expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis (1956), the Berlin Crisis of 1961, and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, which was perhaps the closest the two sides came to nuclear war. Meanwhile, an international peace movement took root and grew among citizens around the world, first in Japan from 1954, when people became concerned abo ...
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First-wave feminism | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: First-wave feminism Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= First-wave feminism was a period of feminist activity and thought that occurred during the 19th and early 20th century throughout the Western world. It focused on legal issues, primarily on gaining the right to vote. The term first-wave was coined in March 1968 by Martha Lear writing in The New York Times Magazine, who at the same time also used the term "second-wave feminism". At that time, the women's movement was focused on de facto (unofficial) inequalities, which it wished to distinguish from the objectives of the earlier feminists.
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